Bbakitiiriya (Bacteria)

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IALI NGO has been authorized by Terminologist Charles Muwanga to post articles from his scientifc translations to Luganda Wikipedia for free public consumption.

Bakitiiriya (Bacteria)


Bakitiria zili mu bwakabaka bwa bilamu obuyitibwa “monera”(wansilikitu ). Bakitilia era zili mu matwaale ga nyukilialitte (Prokaryotes) ensolo ezilna akataffaali oba obutaffaali obutalina nyukiliasi na oligaanile(organelles) okujjako libozomu(ribosomes). Bu bwkabaka bwa “monera” bamemba bezaala awatali kwegadanga (asexual) nga beyubuluzaaamu bibili (binary fission). Tewali bukakafu nti wabeerawo mitosiisi.

Bakitiilia zibeera mu mbeera zonna ku Nsi, mu ttaka, mumazzi, ne mu mpewo (ebbanga). Bakitilia zilimu ebibinja bisatu okusinziila ku nkula (shapes) zazo. Waliwo enekulungilivu eziyitibwa kkukusi (coccus) (the singular is coccus); kabukuuli (rodshaped) obuyitibwa bbakili); n’ezemyenyoolo (spiral bacteria) eziyitibwa sepila (spirilla) Waliwo ezileeta mulalama (meningitis), n’ezileeta gonorrhea, nezileeta. pneumonia,


Ebikwata ku Bakitiria


Bakitilia ezisinga zijja emmele yazo mu sebusitansi z’ebilamu (organic matter). Ezisinga obunji ziyitibwa kalyabifu oba kalyabivunze (saprobic), ekitegeeza nti zilya bifo oba bivunda kyokka waliwo ennyunyuunsi (parasitic). Bakitilia ennyunyuzsi zireeta obulwadde. Bakitiilia endala baziyita neekolerayange (autotrophic), ekitegeeza nti zegattisa (they synthesize) emmele yabyo. Bakitiilia ezo zenyigila mu kkola ektangattisa (photosynthesis). Zikozesa pigimenti ezimelungusiddwa mu saitopulaazima (cytoplasm) wazo. Waliwo ebibinja bya bakitilia bibili ebitangattisa (photosynthetic bacteria), sulufeeli eza kilagala (green sulfur) n’eza kakobe (purple bacteria). Pigimenti ezili mu bakitilia zino zifaanagana ez’ebimera. Bakitilia zibeera mu tempulikya ez’enjawulo; waliwo ezibeerawo ku tempulikya ezinnyogoga ennyo ate ne wabaawo ezo ezibeera mu tempulikya ey’omubili gw’omuntu (human body temperatures) ate era ne wabaawo ezo ezibeera ku tempulikya ezili waggulu ddala. Ate era waliwo ezo ezeetaaga wokisijeni okuteleeza obulamu bwazo (for their metabolism) ate newabaawo ezo ezibeera mu mbeera awatali wokisijeni. Ezimu zizobola okubeera awali oba awatali mpewo ate ne wabaawo ezo ezibeera mu mbeera ya asidi mu bbongo ne mulubuto lw’omuntu.


Ebikolebwa bbakitiria


Bakitiria zirina kinene kye zikola okukuuma obutonde bw’ensi. Eky’okulabilako sipiisa za bakitiria ezimu zirya obubalabe bw’emirandira gy’ebimera eby’empeke, mu kukola kino ne ziyamba okuyingiza nayitologyeni (nitrogen) okuva mu mpewo okumuteeka mu bipooli by’ebiramu (organic compounds) ebyeyambisibwa ebimera. Ebimera bikozesa ebipooli bya naitilojeni bino okukola aminasidi (amino acids) ebizimbamubiri (proteins), n’okubituusa mu nsolo ezibirya. Bakitiriya endala ze zikola ku kuvunda okubeerawo mu biramu.


Mu makolelo g’ebyokulya (food industry), bakitiria zikozesebwa okuteekateeka ebikolebwa bingi nga omuzigo,n'ebiva mu mata g'ente bingi, . Mu matondekero(amakolero) amalala bakitiriya zikozesebwa okukola eddagala eritta obun'eddagala ery'enjawulo eritta ebiwuka. Ku mulembe guno zikozesebwa mu kinonoozo ky'essomabuzaale( genetic engineering) okutondekawo eddagal ey'enjawulo( pharmaceutical products ).

Mu byenda by’omuntu, bakitilia zegattisa /zitabika (synthesize) vitamiini ez’enjawulo ezijjibwa mu mmele naddala vitamin K. bakitiilia era zikola ku mmele eba yepenye ekikamulabiliisa (digestion) mu mubiri.

Eky’akabi, bakitiria nnyinji zirwaaza (are pathogenic), ekitegeeza zileeta endwadde mu bantu. Waliwo bakitiiria eziviirako abantu okufuna endwaade n’okufa obulwadde . Mu ndwadde eziva ku bakitiiriya mulimu:

(i) akafuba (tuberculosis),

(ii) endwadde z'ekikaba

(iii) Okufuula emmere

(iv)tetanaasi(tetanus)

(v)Omusujja gwo mu byenda (typhoid fever) (vi) diputeriya (diphtheria), (vii) sifiriizi (syphilis), (viii) kolera (cholera), (ix)endwadde z’ebigere, (x)ebigenge .

Ne mu byamalimiro(agirikakya) mulimu endwadde za bakitiiria nnyingi ku faamu n’ennimilo. Kyokka mu yindasitule bakitiiria ezimu zitabulwa mu bizimbulukusa (yeasts) n’entikotiko (molds), mu kuteekateeka emmere ezekiivululo (fermented foods) nga kiizi ,vayinega (vinegar) evinnyo/wayini), ne bbongo (yogurt).

Bbakitiriya awatali kubuusabuusa kasirikitu akalamu. Bakitiriya ziri buli wamu .Ziri mu migaato gy’olya, ettaka ebimera me bikulira, ne mu mibiri gy’ebiramu ebirala nga n’omuntu bw’omutwalidde. Bbakitiiriya butaffaali bwangu nnyo obuli mu kikula kya nnyukirayite (prokaryotic). Kino kitegeeza nti tezirina nnyukiriyaasi ensonjovu obulungi, bakitiiriya butaffaali busirikitu obulina obuzimbe bwa kataffali kamu (single cells) nga kano ekigenderera kyako mu bulamu kiri kimu kweyabuluzaamu bbakitiiriya ndala. (to replicate).

Yadde nga tezirina nnukiriyasi enteeketeeke oba ensonjole, zirina endagabutonde (DNA) esangibwa mu kifo ekiyitibwa nnyukiroodi (nucleoid). Bulina embubi z’obutaffaali (cell membranes) okufaanana n’obutaffaali obulala awamu n’ekisenge ky’akataffaali akakuumi (a protective cell wall). Manya nti ekisenge ky’ataffaali ka bbakitiriya (bactiria cell wall) tekiringa eky’akataffaali k’ekimera kubanga kino ekya bakitiriya kirina ekigendererwa eky’okuwa bakitiiriya obukuumi anti akataffaali ka bakitiiriya tekalina bitundu (organelles) byonna okujjako libosomu.

Bakitiiriya zitunula zitya?

Buramu butini nnyo nnyo mu nkula ey’ebikulungo (spherical) nga bw’olaba omupiira. Butera okwesengeka mu bujegere obuliga emigalamiro gy’entoloovu (enkula ennetoloovu (a row of circles). Bbakitiriya ez’enkula ey’akatayimbwa butunula nga “obukooli” (E. coli) obubeera mu byenda byo. Teebereza akalimba ka bbakitiriya obufaanana butyo.Busobola okukola enjegere nga sosegi ezikwataganye. Kyokka waliwo na bbakitiirya ez’enkula eya sipayiro (spiral shaped bacteria)

Bbakitiriya zikola ki ?

Kino kiramu ekirina akataffaalikazimbila akamu (one-celled living organisms). Tekalina nyukiliasi (nucleus). Bakitilia Bbakitiriya zikola ebintu bingi. Ezimu ziyamba ebimera okuyingiza naitogyeni (N) okuva mu ttaka ate ezimu zireeta endwadde kyokka ezimu ozisanga mu mbuto z’ente okuziyamba okukutulakutula mu seruloozi (to break down cellulose).

Embuto z’ente ku lwazo ziyinza okukola ku muddo n’ebimera kyokka tezisobola kuyingiza biriisa bya bimala okuva mu bimera bino ate nga tezisobola kukutulakutula mu seruloozi. Bbakitiriya ezo ezirina oobusobozi obw’enjawulo, ze zikutulakutula mu seruloozi okufuna ebisukaali (sugars) ekisobozesa okufulumya amasoboza agetaagisa. Teebereza singa bannasayansi baba basobodde okukola bbakitiriya ezibeera mu mbuto zaffe okusobola okukutulakutula ebimera nga bibadde biriiriddwa bibisi. Awo naffe abantu tuba tusobola okulya omuddo n’ebikoola emisana lwonna.

Bakitilia kiva mu kya lulattini: bacterium ekiva mu ky’olugeleeki baktērion, era kikwata ku matwaale(domian) g’obulamu obusilikitu obulina enkula ez’enjawulo; obumu bulinga makata obulala bwekulungilivi ate obumu bulinga munwe gwa ttooke mu nkula. Obutafaanana na butaffaali bwa nsolo, obutaffaali bwa bakitiilia tebulina nyukiliasi.

Bakitilia tewali wetakulila kubanga ogisanga mu mazzi, wansi mu kikalappwa ky’ensi (earth’s crust), kasasilo, munda ne kungulu kw’emibili gy’ebimera n’ensolo, naddala mu miyitilo gy’emmele (digestive systems) mu bantu, enkuyege n’ebiyenje. Mu ggulaamu emu eyettaka mubaamu obutaffaali bwa bakitiilia emitwaalu ana ate mu mililiita y’amazzi agatali ga lunnyo mubaamu obutaffaali bwa bakitilia akakadde kamu. Bw’ogatta bakitilia zonna ezili mu nsi zikola enzitoya esinga ey’ebimelo n’ensolo zonna.

Bakitilia zilina emigaso ate era ne ziba n’obubi bwe zikola. Waliwo bakitilia ezikozesebwa okuzza obujja ebiliisa (recycling nutrients), gamba nga okuteeka naitilojeni mu ttaka (fixation of nitrogen ) okuva mu nampewo (atmosphere ). Bakitilia era ze zisobozesa okuvunza kw’ebifudde. Singa ebilamu ebifa byaali tebivunda Ensi yandibadde ejjula n’ebooga emilambo gy,ebifu, ebilamu ne biba nga tebikyalina we bibeera.

Mu mubiri gw’omuntu mubaamu bakitilia ezisinga ku butaffaali bw’omubili obunji naye ol’omubili okuba n’ensengekera y’obukuumi ey’obutonde (natural immune system,) bakitilia zino ezisinga obunji tezikola buvune mu mubili. Kyokka waliwo bakitilia ezimu ezileeta endwadde omuli kkolera, kabootongo, ebigenge (liprosy) ne kawumpuli (plague)

Bakitiliya ezisinga okuba kattira mulimu ezo ezilumba ensengekera y’okussa (.Respiratory infections,) nga akafuba (TB) akatugumbula ennyo abantu naddala mu afilika. Antibbayotiki (antibiotics ) zikozesebwa okukola ku bulwadde bwa bakitiiria.

Bakitiria bwasooka kukettebwa Antonie van Leeuwenhoek mu 1676, nga akozesa lenza z’ekizimbulukusa (microscope lens) kye yali y’ekoledde.Bakitilia zino yaziyita “bukyolo”("Animalcules)" Kisuubilwa nti obujajja bwa bakitiilia eziliwo kati bwali mu bulamu obw’akataffaali aka namunigina nga buno bulowoozebwa okuba nga bwe bulamu obwasooka okubaawo ku Ensi emyaaka obuwumbi nga buna egiyise. Ebiseera ebyo ku Ensi tekwaliko bilamu bilala byonna.

Bakitilia zilina akakwate akamaanyi n’ebilamu ebilara byonna .bakitilia zikulila ku mubili gw’ekilamu nga ensolo oba ekimera mu ngeli y’emu gye zibeera ku bintu ebilala. Bakitilia zikulila bulungi awabuguumilila n’awali entuuyo oba olutuuyotuuyo era bwe ziyitila obungi ku mubili gw’omuntu ziviilako omuntu okuwunya olusu olubi (body odor). Eno y’ensonga lwaaki omuntu alina okunaaba mu biseera ebigele awatali kwosaaamu.


Obusobozi bwa bakitiria okukutulakutula ebipooli by’ebiramu eby’enjawulo bukozesebwa okujja kaboni eza nakazzi (hydrocarbons) mu petuloliyaamu era kno ne kikozesebwa mu kulwanyisa amafuta agaba ganjadde naddaka mu mayanja.