Ebitundu by'Ekimera (the Parts of a Plant)

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"Ebitundu by’ekimera"


Munnabyamalimiro alina okumanya ebitundu bino eby’enjawulo ku bimera bwe biyitibwa n’omugaso gwabyo. Emirandila, enduli, ebikoola, ebimuli, ebibala n’ensigo by’ebitundu ebisookelwako ebikola ekimera.

(i) Enduli oba enkolo (Stems)

Enduli ziyamba okutambuza amazzi n’ebiriisa ebiba biyingiziddwa emirandira okudda mu bikoola, olwo emmere ekoleddwa mu bikoola n’egenda mu bitundu by’ekimera ebirala. Obutaffaali bw’ekimera obukola kino buyitibwa zayireemu (xylem cells); buno bwe butambuza amazzi ate obutaffaali obutambuza emmere ekoleddwa ne buyitibwa polemu (phloem cells). Enduli era ziwagira ekimera ne zisobozesa ebikoola okutega omusana ogwetaagisa okukola emmere. Ekikoola wekyegattira n’enduli wayitibwa mpataanya oba noodi (node). Ekibangiriza wakati w’ebikoola n’enduli kiyitibwa yintanoodi oba ekiwataanya (internode).

(ii) Emirandira

Ebimera biba n’emirandira egy’obuswanso (fibrous roots) oba egy’omusoggo (taproot system). Mu mirandira gino gyombi, emigaso gye gimu; kutambuza mazzi na biriisa ebyetaagisa ekimera okukula. Emirandira giyamba okuwanirira ekimera nga gikisimba mu ttaka ate era ne giyingiza mu kimera amazzi n’ebiriisa okuva mu ttaka. Emirandila era gisobola okutereka ebireetamanyi (carbohydrates) ekimera bye kikozesa okukola ebintu eby’enjawulo. Omulandira ogw’omusoggo gwe mulandira ogutalina matabi mangi kyokka nga mukwafu nnyo ate nga muzimbulukufu.

(iii) Ebikoola

Ebikoola bye bitundu by’ekimera ebikola emmere yakyo; kino kitegeeza nti ebikoola g’amakolero g’emmere ag’ebimera ebya kiragala. Ebikoola biyinza okuba eby’enkula ennyangu; bino biba birina ekibuula(blade) kimu kyokka nga kigattibwa akapakkyo(petiole) ku nduli. Ate waliwo ekikoola ekizibuwavu (compound leaf). Kino kikolebwa obukoola obw’enjawulo obukwataganyizibbwa akapakkyo (petiole) ku nduli/

Ebikoola bigenderera kutega oba kukwata kitangaala ate era birina obutuli omuyingizibwa n’okufulumizibwa amazzi n’empewo. Ku ngulu kw’ekikoola kuliko olububi lw’oluzigo oluyitibwa kyutiko (cuticle) olukuuma ekikoola. Mu kikoola mubaamu veeni (veins) ezitambuza amazzi n’ebiriisa munda mu kikoola.

Ku bikoola kwe kubeera ensobozesa ezikola emmere, ekikolwa ekiyitibwa ekitangattisa (photosynthesis). Mu kikolwa kino, kabonibbiri-okisayidi n’amazzi nga byeyambisa kkala ya kiragala eyitibwa kerofiiru (chlorophyll) n’amasoboza ag’ekitangaala bifuulibwa ggulukoosi(glucose), ntegeeza ebisukaali. Ebisukaali bino birimu amasoboza amanji ddala, mwe muva emmere ekozesebwa ebimera ebisinga obungi.

Ekitangattisa kirina akakwate n’e bimera ebya kiragala okusobola okukola emmere yabyo n’okufulumya okisigeni eyetaagisa ebiramu ebirala. Okimanyi nti empewo eyitibwa okisijeni gy’ossa kati yavudde mu bimera bya kiragala. Kati nno sanyaawo emiti!!


(iv) Ebimuli


Ebimuli mwe muva ensigo z’ebimera. Birina ebitundu eby’enjawulo. Ekitundu ekikazi kye kiyitibwa nakimuli (pistil), ekiggwayo nti “nakazaala w’ekimuli”. Nakimuli kitera kusangibwa mu makkati ga kimuli era kikolebwa ebitundu bisatu omuli: segima (stigma), siteero (style) ne walugi (ovary). Segima ke katundu akakwatira waggulu wa nakimuli. “Kakwataganye” ne siteero eringa olupiira. Siteero yetuuka ku walugi omubeera obutaffaali bw’amagi g’ekikazi agayitibwa entabamagi (ovules).

Ebitundu ebisajja biyitibwa sekimuli (stamens), era bitera okuba nga byebulungudde nakimuli. Obusajja bw’ekimuli buliko ebitundu bibiri: sekizaalirizi n’obuwaniriro. Sekizaalizi kye kireeta obuwakisa (pollen) nga bw’ebutaffali bw’ kizadde obuzaala ate obuwaniriro bwe buwanirira sekizaalizi okumukuumira waggulu. Mu kiseera eky’okuwakisa (fertilization), obuwakisa (pollen) bugwa ku sigema, olwo siteero eringa olupiira oludda wansi n’eyingira mu walugi (ovary). Obutaffaali bw’ekitundu ekisajja, obuwakisa bukka wansi mu siteero olwo ne bukwatagana ne walugi (ovules) okugiwakisa. Walugi ewakisiddwa y’efuuka ensigo ate entabamagi (ovules) n’efuuka ekibala.


Ekitundu ekiyitibwa ekisikirizo (Petals) nakyo kirina omugaso gw’obutonde bw’ekimuli. Obulungi bwabyo buyamba okusikiriza ebiwuka ebitambuza obuwakiso (pollen) okuva ku kizadde (ekisajja), gamba nga enjuki, ebiwojjolo n’ebinyila. Ate mwetikka (sepals) mu ntobo kye kitundu ekiyamba okuwanirira ekimuli.


Ekibala ye walugi oba mufuukansigo eba eyengedde omubeera ensigo. Okuwakisa nga kuwedde, walugi ezimbulukuka olwo n’efuuka ngonderevu oba nkalubo okukuuma ensigo eziba ziri mu kukula. Ebintu bingi bye tulowooza nti nva ndiirwa mu butuufu biba bibala; eky’okulabilako ennyaanya, kyukamba, ebijanjaalo, ensunjju, entula, ne kawo.


Buli kibala kiba kimera kitono oba embuliyo (embryo) ekirimu ebikoola, enduli n’emirandila nga birinze ebyetaagisa okumeruka n’okukula. Ebimera byeyambisa nsigo zaabyo okuva mu kifo ekimu okudda mu kirala okuyita mu mbuyaga (mpewo), amazzi oba ebisolo ebiba binoonya omubisi mu kimuli.