Ebyobufuna

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Okusinziira ku Charles Muwanga, Ebyobufuna kiva mu bigambo by’oluganda bibiri ebyobufuzi (politics) ne “ebyenfuna” (economy).

Mu butuufu, "ebyobufuna" Muwanga akizimbye okugandawaza omulamwa gw’olugereeki (oluyonaani) “ekonomie politique”, omungereza ky’ayita “political economy”.

Okusooka “ebyobufuna” kyategeezanga “essomo ly’entondeka y’ebyamaguzi”, entambuza, n’enkozesa yabyo. Bannabyabufuna (Political economists) beyambisa essomo lino okunoonyereza ku nkola n’ensibuko y’obugagga bw’amawanga.

Kyokka era omulamwa gw’ebyobufuna gunokoolayo ebizibu n’ebyetaago by’entabaganya, amateeka g’obutonde agafuga enkulaakulana y’entabaganya, awamu n’emitendera enkulaakulana y’entabaganya y’Ensi gy’eyiseemu okutuuka w’eri mu bitundu eby’enjawulo, naddala mu Bulaaya, Amerika, ne Azia.

Ate era omulamwa gwa “ebyobufuna”, abayizi, abayivu, n’abayivuwavu bagweyambisa okwekenneenya embeera z’ebyobufuzi n’ebyenfuna ezivuga (ezifuga) emiramwa egy’enjawulo nga: (a) Ebyobufuna by’entalo (the political economy of war) (b) Ebyobufuna by’enkuuma y’obutonde bw’ensi (the political economy of environmental protection) (c) Ebyobufuna bya Sayansi ne Tekinologiya (the political economy of science and technology). (d) Ebyobufuna by’enkulaakulanya y’Olulimi (The political economy of language development) N’emiramwa emirala mingi.

1.1 Ebizibu ebisookerwako eby’entabaganya

Ebyobufuna byanjulira omuyizi oba omuntu yenna ebizibu oba ebyetaago by’omuntu ebisookerwako. Munnabyabufuna yenna ateekwa okumanya nti ebizibu bino era bye byetaago by’omuntu ebisookerwako. Ebyetaago by’omuntu ebisookerwako biri:

i) Emmere ii) Okwambala iii) awokusiisira(Shelter) iv) Obujanjabi v) Obukuumi oba eby’okwerinda

Omuntu okusobola okwejjako ebizibu ebyo, alina okuba n’omwoyo gw’eggwanga ate nga mukakaalukanyi asobola okukola ennongoosereza mu by’obugagga eby’ensibo n’okufuga obutonde ng’akola mirimu (labour). Emirimu gino gikorebwa mu ngeri bbiri:

i) Engeri eya Sayansi: Ntegeeza okukozesa omulengera (the mind) gwe oba obwango bwe okukola n’okulongoosereza ebimuyamba nga yeyambisa “enkola ya sayansi” (the scientific method). ii) Engeri ya Tekinologiya: Okuyiiya n’okutondekawo ebikozesebwa mu kukola emirimu n’ebintu eby’enjawulo.

Singa abantu bagenda mu maaso nga bakola ebyo waggulu ekivaamu eba nkulaakulana mu ntabaganya.


1.2 Amateeka agafuga enkulaakulana y’entabaganya

Okusobola okutegeera obulungi entabaganyabantu (society) kyetaagisa okumanya nti waliwo amateeka agafuga enkulaakulana y’entabaganya zonna.

Okutegeera amateeka ago kikusobozesa okunnyonnyoka engeri entabaganya ezikulaakulanye gye zizze zikulaakulana okuva ku mutendera oba omulembe ogumu okudda ku mulala. Wetaaga okusooka okumanya nti enkulaakulana y’entabaganya tejja mu butanwa yadde nga ekkubo mw’eyita si ggolokofu bulungi. Kyokka waliwo amateeka agavuga oba agafuga enkulaakulana y’entabaganya.

1.3 Amasomo agetaagisa Okunnyonnyoka Ebyobufuna.

Okusobola okunnyonnyoka enkulaakulana y’ebyobufuna mu Nsi, omuntu ow’omulembe alina okunnyonnyoka amasomo gano aga bakakensa ab’enjawulo ku mbeera z’ebyenfuna n’ebyobufuzi (ebyobufuna): a) Endowooza ya Bagabutonde ( Bannagirikakya) b) Endowooza ya Mmakatale oba Bammakantayiro. c) Endowooza eziwakanya Bamakantayiro nga ebyobufuna bya Adamu Ssemiti (Adam Smith) d) Ebyobufuna bya Abamakisi (Marxists)

1.4 Emiramwa egyetaagisa okunnyonnyola ebyobufuna.

Okusobola “okukkakkanya obwetaavu” (defeating necessity) oba okwetusaako ebyetaago bye, omuntu akola ku butonde n’ekivaamu kuba kutondeka bikole. Okusobola okukkakkanya obwetaavu kyetaagisa okukola emirimu. Okufunvubira kwonna okukolebwa kye kiyitibwa “ekkubo ly’etondeka y’ebikole” (the production process).

Wakati mu kkubo ery’okutendeka ebikole, emirimu egikolebwa omuntu (man’s labour) y’empaliriizo esookerwako (the primary force) egattika “emirimu omuntu gy’okola” n’ebikolebwako emirimu” (objects of labour) nga yeyambisa “ebikozesebwa” (tools) by’akola (atondekawo) ng’agondera etteeka erigamba nti “ebyafaayo by’entondeka y’ebikole byafaayo bya sayansi na tekinologiya”. Omuntu omuyivuwavu ow’omulembe guno waliwo emiramwa gye yetaaga okweyambisa okwekenneenya entabaganya okusobola okukuba empenda ez’okwekulaakulanya n’okukulaakulanya entabaganya oba entabaganyo ye. Muno mulimu emiramwa nga:

a) Entabaganya n’Entabaganyo (Society and Community) b) Omugobansonga (dialectician) c) Ebyobufuna (Political economy) d) Ebyafaayo by’entondeka y’ebikole (the history of production) e) Ebyafaayo bya sayansi ne tekinologiya (the history of Science and technology) f) Emapirizo za Mugobansonga (dialectical forces) g) Entabaganyo = entabaganya entono (Community) h) Ensengekera (systems) i) Omusingi gw’ebyenfuna (Economic base) j) Sebasitula oba Sebuzimbe (Superstrucure) k) Ayidologiya (ideology) l) Empalirizo z’entondeka y’ebikole (Forces of proction) m) Ensobozeso z’entondeka y’ebikole(Factors of production) n) Emikwanaganyo gy’ebyenfuna (Economic relations) o) Enkolagana z’ebyenfuna (Economic relations) oba enkolagana mu bantu p) Emikwanaganyo egy’entabaganyi (Social relations) q) Emikwanaganyo gy’entondeka y’ebikole (Production relations) r) Enkolagna ez’entondeka z’ebikole (Production relations) s) Enkolagana za Semawanga (Supranational relations) t) Obunukufu n’obunambifu N’emirala


Amateeka agafuga enkulaakulana y’entabaganya

(i) Ettaka ly’okugondera obwetaavu erisooka:Etteeka ly’okugondera obwetaavu erisooka (1st law of necessary conformity).

“Empalirizo z’entondeka y’ebikolebwe bwe zikyuka, emikwanaganyo gy’entodeka z’ebikole giba girina okugondera obwetaaavu”. “Okugondera obwetaavu” kivvuubula nga “conform to necessity”. Eky’okulabirako, singa oba okozesa abakozi ku faamu yo ng’ekikozesebwa y’enkumbi maanyi ga mikono, bw’oleeta masiini egonza ennima nga tulakita enkolagana oba engeri gy’okwanaganya emirimu mu bakozi bo eba ekyuka olw’ensonga emu aba endala.

Ebitongole nga bino biyamba okuteekawo empisa oba okuteekawo enkola nga amateeka, eby’enjigiriza, eby’okwerinda, okukwasisa amateeka, okukuuma emirembe, okutaawuluza enkaayana oba obutategeeragana, nobutebenkevu era bibeeramu eddiini, ebyobuwangwa, okunokoolayo ebimu. Bino byonna wamu bye bikola sebuzimbe (sebasitula) w’entabaganya.

(ii) Ettteka ly’okugondera obwetaavu ery’okubiri:“Bwe wabaawo enkyukakyuka mu musingi gw’ebyenfuna, sebuzimbe (sebasitula) nayo ekyuka ng’egondera obwetaavu”.

Eky’okulabirako, buli sayansi ne tekinologiya lwe bifuuka ensibuko y’amagezi, okuvumbula n’okuyiiya, eddini ezitambuliza abagoberezi mu “sikimanyinkitye” (superstitution) nga okusinza bukatonda obungi, okusinza obutonde na buli kintu ekiziiyiza okutegeera zigenda ziddirira ate ezo ezikkiririza mu Katenda omu avunaaanyizibwa ku bwengula bwonna na buli kitonde ekibulimu, Katonda ensibuko ya sayansi, nga zijjawo.

Omusingi gw’ebyenfuna.

Empagi luwaga ey’ensiisira eva wansi mu musingi (ekinnya) omuwanvu obulungi okusobola okuba ennywevu obulungi. Mu ngeri y’emu, omusingi gw’ebyenfuna (economic base) ogugerageranya n’omusingi guno oguggumiza empagi luwaga mu ttaka. Mu byobufuna, omusingi gusinziira ku mpalirizo z’entondeka y’ebikole n’enkolagana (emikwanaganyo) gy’ebyanfuna.

Sebasitula (Sebuzimbe)

Ensiisira, ennyumba ya Buganda eyedda yabangako empagi luwaga mu makkati ng’esimbiddwa n’eggumira bulungi mu ttaka (mu musingi). Empagi luwaga eno nga y’ebeera sebuzimbe y’ensiisira kubanga yeyetikkanga obuzimbe bw’ekizimbe (ensiisira) kyokka era yayitibwanga sebasitula kubanga y’ewanirira obuzito bw’ennyumba bwonna. Kyokka empagi eno, sebasitula (oba sebuzimbe) nayo erina ekijiggumiza, guno gwe musingi (ekinnya) mw’esimbibwa.

Entabaganya nayo eba n’ekyefaananyirizaako empagi luwaga eno oba sebuzimbe (sebasitula). Entondeka y’ebyamaguzi okusobola okugenda obulungi mu maaso, wetaagibwa okubaawo ebitongole ebiyinza okuba nga tebyenyigira butereevu mu ntondeka ya bikole naya nga biyamba okusobozesa entondeka y’ebikole okugenda obulungi mu maaso.