Ekitangattisa(Photosynthesis)

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Ekitangattisa (Photosynthesis) kye kibaawo ng’ebimera bikozesa ekitangaala okuva ku njuba Muwanga okukola ku kabonibbiri-okisayidi okuva mu nampewo n’amazzi okuva mu ttaka okubifuula ebisukaali okuliisa ekimera.

Ekiva mu kino ky’ekimera okufulumya okisigyeni n’ayingira mu nampewo.


Omulamwa gw'ekitangattisa guva mu kugattika ebigambo bibiri :

ekitangaala(light) + okwegattisa(synthesize)= Ekitangattisa


Weetegereze:

Ekitangattisa y' engeri y’okukozesa amasoboza g’ekitangaala (light energy), okwegattisa (to synthesize) molekyu z’ebireetamaanyi (carbohydrate molecules) kye kiyitibwa “ekitangattisa (photosynthesis). Ekitangattisa kitera okuyita mu mitendera ebiri egy’enjawulo;

  • Okusooka, obusannyalazo (electrons) obulimu amasoboza butambula okuyita mu enzayimu ez’awamu (co-enzymes) ez’omudding’anwa ne molekyu endala. Amasoboza ag’obusanyalazo (electron energy) wano ne gayingizibwa.
  • Molekyu za kabonibbiri-okisayidi ziyungibwa mu bireetamaanyi okukola sebusitansi z’ebiramu nga ggulukoosi.


(i) Ebitangattiso (Kolopulasiti).

Ekitundu ky’ebikoola n’enduli z’ebimera omubeera ekitangattisa (photosynthesis) kiyitibwa keropulaasi (chloroplast). Keropulaasiorigaanire (organelles) nnene nga ozigereegeranyizza, ezirimu oluzzizzi olulimu ebizimbamubiri (proteins), oluzizzi luno nga luyitibwa “situloomu” (stroma).

(ii) Ensengekera z’ebitangattiso (Photosystems)

Molekyu z’obutereke za langi (Pigment molecules) ezisengekeddwa nga ensengekera z’ekitangaala (photosystems) ze ziyingiza (zitega) ekitangaala ky’enjuba mu kololopulaasi (chloroplast). Ensengekera z’ebitangattiso (Photosystems) bulimba (clusters) bwa kitangaala obuyingiza obutereke bwa langi obw’ ekitangaala ky’enjuba nga bwegasse wamu ne molekyu nga obukonta (proton) eza vatomu eya ayodologyeni (hydrogen ion), enzayimu, enzayimu ez’awamu (coenzymes), ne sayitokiroomu (cytochromes).

Buli nsegekera ya kitangaala (photosystem) erimu nga molekyu 200 eza pigimenti eya kiragala eyitibwa kerofiiru (chlorophyll) ne molekyu nga 50 ez’ekibinja kya ky’obutereke bwa langi (pigment) ekirala ekiyitibwa keratenoyi (carotenoids). Mu kifo ekibeeramu okutomeggana eky’ensengekera y’ekitangaala (photosystem), amasoboza ag’ekitangaala gakyusibwa ne gafuulibwa amasoboza aga kemiko (chemical energy).


Ebiramu bingi ku Nsi, omuli n’ebimera byonna ebyakiragala, byegattisa (synthesize) emmere yabyo okuva mu molekyu ennyangu ennyo nga kabonbbiri-okisayidii (carbon dioxide) n’amazzi. Kino okubaawo ekiramu kyetaaga amasoboza (energy) era amasoboza gava mu kitangaala. Mu bimera ebya kiragala, amasoboza ag’ekitangaala (Light energy) gategwa mu keropulaasi (chloroplast) ezisangibwa mu butaffaali bw’ebimera ne bukozesebwa okwegattisa (to synthesize) molekyu za ggulukoosi (glucose molecules), eziragwa nga C6H12O6. Mu kikolwa kino, okisijeni (O2) afulumizibwa nga kazambi (waste product) ava mu bimera.

Ggulukoosi ne okisijeni olwo ne bikozesebwa mu mitokyonduliya (mitochondrion) z’obutaffaali bw’ebimera n’ensolo, olwo amasoboza ne gafulumizibwa okukozesebwa mu kwegattisa (synthesis). Mu kutomeggana (in the reaction), kabonibbiri-okisayidi (C02) n’amazzi bifulumizibwa mu mitokyonduliya (mitochondrion) okuddamu okukozesebwa mu kitangattisa (photosynthesis) mu kolopulaasi (chloroplast).


Ebyetaagisa okukuza ebirime n’omuddo mu Byamalimiro

Ebyamalimiro (Agriculture) kitegeeza okulunda n’okulima ebimera, obutiko n’ebiramu ebirala ebikozesebwa ng’emmere, ebigwa (fibre) n’ebintu ebilala ebyetaagisa okukuuma obulamu. Ebyamalimiro ky’ekimu ku bintu ebyafuula omuntu ow’omulembe ogw’ entabaganyaey’enteekateeka ey’omuggunduokuyita mu kulunda n’okulima mu buli maka, ekintu ekyaleetawo ekisukkulumo mu makungula (surpluses) era kino ne kiba entandikwa y’enteekateekanya (civilization).

Mu by’ensoma y’ebyamalimiro (agriculture education), okulima kuyimirilawo na ngeri oba bukodyo obusobozesa okutumbula ebikula by’ebirime n’ebisolo ebirundibwa. Mu bimera watera okwetaagisaawo okufukulira yadde nga waliwo n’enkola endala ez’okulima n’okulunda ku ttaka ekkalu. Mu mawanga agakulaakulanye aebyamalimiro ebiri ku mutindo ogw’amakolero byiimiriddewo ku kulima ekimera eky’ekikula ekimu oba okulunda ensolo y’ekikula kimu. Okulima n’okulunda kwonna kwetaagisa okuba ku mutindo ogukuuma obutonde bw’ Ensi (sustainable agriculture), omuli n’okukozesa nakavundira oba kiyite ebyamalimiro ebya nakavundira (e.g. permaculture or organic agriculture).

Sayansi webyamalimiro, okuzaalisa ebimera, eddagala ly’ebiwuka n’ebigimusa, awamu n’okulongoosa mu tekinologiya biyambye nnyo okulinnyisa obungi bw’ebikungulwakyokka ate era biviiriddeko okwonoona obutonde bw’Ensi oba okutataaganya omwenkanonkano gw’embeera y’ebiramu mu butonde.

Ebitondekwawo okuva mu ebyamalimiro mulimu emmere, ebiwuzi (fibres), amafuta, n’ebikozesebwa mu makolero. Ku mulembe guno ebimera bikozesebwa okukola amafula g’ebiramu (biofuels), eddagala, ne pulasitiika. Mu mmere mulimu enva endiirwa, ebibala, amata, ennyama, n’ebirala. Ebiwuzi mulimu ppamba, ebyoya by’ensolo (wool), obuwuzi obukolebwa obusaanyi (silk), n’ amasanda (flux). Amafuta g’ebiramu mulimu entuumo za kasasiro (biomass), etani, ne dizero.