Entababutonde

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Entababutonde (Ecology)

Etymologically, the Luganda concept entabagutonde connotes “interaction”, interactions between animate and inanimate as well as between animate to animate components of nature on Earth.

Entababutonde(ecology)kiraga enkolagana oba akakwate akaliwo wakati w’obutonde obw’ebiramu n’ebutonde obw’ebitali biramu ebiramu mwe biwangaalira (Obuwangaaliro bw’ebiramu).

Entababutonde ssomo erisoma ensengekera z’entababutonde(Ecological system).

“Ensengekera z’entababutonde” (ecosystems) zinnyonnyola enkolagana z’ebiramu eby’enjawulo mu mbeera z’obutonde obutali bulamu Katonda bwe yaziteekerateekera .

Ensi erimu obuwangaaliro bungi ddala.Ekyawukananya obuwangaaliro buno bwonna obw’enjawulo mulimu :

(a)Obwoki(Tempulikya)

(b) Obunnyogovu

( c )Ekitangaala


Buli kiwangaaliro kiwangaaliramu obulamu obw’enjawulo okusinziira ku bwetaavu bwabwo ate nga ebiramu bino byonna bibeerawo buli kimu ku kirala.


Entababutonde kye ki ?


Emiramwa gy’Obuwangaaliro, entababutonde (ecosystem) n’entababiramu (biome) gibuzaabuza. Gyawukana gitya?


Entababutonde era kyeragirawo nti kikwata ku butonde bwonna, ebiramu n’ebitali biramu ng’amazzi ,ettaka, enjazi , ne nampewo(the atmosphere) .

Entababutonde ziyinza okuba entono nga omwala oba ennene nga ebibira . Ky’olina okumanya nti entababutonde kikwata ku kibinja kyonna eky’ebiramu n’ebitali biramu ekikolagana buli kimu n’ekirala . Ekyo nakyo kibalo kya butonde , buli kiriwo okuba nga kya mugaso okubezaawo buli kiramu , okuviira ddala kun juba etuwa omusana, ettaka n’enjazi, amazzi , ne nampewo (atmosphere) omuli ebirungo by’omukka ebikola empewo ey’obulamu .

Ate era kimanye nti nga ebitali biramu ebyo bwe birina omugaso eri ebiramu kyokka ate era buli kiramu kya mugaso eri ebiramu ebirala. Ekyo ky’ekibalo kya katonda abakafiiri kye bayita ekibalo ky’obutonde .


Ebibira nsengekera ya ntababutonde omuwangaalira ebiramu eby’ebikula eby’enjawulo entoko, ebimera n’ensolo omuli n’obulamu obusirikitu.


Olw’okuba entababutonde kyekuusiza ku biramu eby’enjawulo byonna , “bannantababutonde”(ecologists) banoonyereza ku buli kiramu , okuviira ddala ku bulamu obusirikitu nga obwa bbakitiiriya , okutuuka ku kakwate akaliwo wakati w’obutonde obutali bulamu n’obutonde obulamu obwa buli kika.

Entababutonde ng’essomo ne bannantabatonde ng’abakugu balina omugaso gwa maanyi nnyo, naddala mu kukuuma obuwangaaliro, omuli:

  • Ebibira,
  • ensozi n’obusozi,
  • Entobazi
  • Semazzi (waterbodies)
  • Eby’obulamu mu ntabaganya, n’ebirala.


Ensengekera z’entababutonde(Ecological systems) zirimu:

(a) Entababutonde eza semazzi .Zino zirimu:

• Ensengekera z’entababutonde ezo mu semayanja ne waluyanja (Marine ecosystems). Amazzi g’entababutonde zino gaba mannyowavu, ekitegeeza nti gaba ga lunnyo.

• Ensengekera z’entababutonde ez’amazzi agattali mannyowavu (Freshwater ecosystems). Muno mubaamu ensengekera z’entababutonde ezo mu nnyanja , emigga , emyala, entobazi , n’enzizi(inland water ecosystems)


(b) Entababutonde eza nalukalu .Muno mulimu ebibira, ensaalu , n’ettale, eddungu, embalama z’ennyanja , semayanja n’emigga


Emitendera gy’enteekateeka y’Entababutonde (Levels of ecological organization)

Kati ka tutandike nga tulaga emitendera gy’enteekateeka y’ebiramu ku Nsi nga tuva waggulu okukka wansi:

(a) Ekyebulungulo ky’Obulamu (Biosphere sphere)

(b) Entababiramu(biome)

(c) Entababutonde(ecosystem)

(d) Entababuvo(community )

(e) Entababibinja(population)

(f) Ekitonde ekiramu( organism)

(g) Ensengekera y’ekitundu ky’ekiramu (organ system)

(h) Ekitundu ky’ekitramu(organ)

(i) Emiwuula(tissues)

(j) Akataffaali k\’ekiramu(cell)

(k) Molekyo(molecules)

(l) Obuziba(atoms)

Emitendera gy’enteekateeka y’ensengeka y’entababutonde ( levels of ecological organization)

Emitendera etaano ege, teekateeka y’entababutonde girimu:

(i) Ekikula(Species)

(ii) Entababibinja(Population)

(iii) Entababuvo(Communities)

(iv) Entababutonde

(iv) Ekyebulungulo ky’Obulamu(Biosphere)

Ettabi ly’entababutonde (ecoloby) erisembayo obutono ky’ekikula(species) .Ekibinja ky’ebikula kirimu :

• Ebimera

• Ensolo

• Obulamu obusirikitu(Microorganisms)


Bamemba b’ekiramu okubalibwa nga ab’ekikula ekimu bateekwa okuba nga basobola okwezalamu

Entababuvo(Communities) kyekuusiza ku busangiro ( location) , si kikula .Entababuvo (communities) zirimu ebibinja by’ebiramu eby’enjawulo naye nga birina obusangiro obw’awamu .Eky’okulabirako ebibira bisangibwamu entababuvo ey’ebinyonyi, ebimera, bbakitiriya n’emiti . Entababutonde (Ecosystems) gwe mutendera oguddirira ogw’ekyebulungulo ky’ebiramu(biosphere) mu nsengeka .Entababutonde zirimu:

• Ebiramu byonna mu kifo

• Ebitali biramu bonna mu kifo ebiramu mwe byeyagalira .

Ebyebulungulo by’ebiramu (biospheres) bye bitundu by’enkulungo y’ensi ebiwangaaliramu ebiramu .Ebitundu by’enkulungo y’ensi ebisinga byebulungulo bya biramu nga muno mulimu semayanja awamu ne nampewo(the atmoshpher) .

Enjawulo wakati w’ekyebulungulo ky’ebiramu n’entababuvo

Mu ntababutonde , entababuvo kikwata ku kibinja ky’ekikula ekibeera awamu nga kitabagana n’obuwangaaliro mu kifo ekigere. Ekyebulungulo ky’ebiramu ( biosphere ) kikwata mugatte gw’ensengekera z’entababutonde wonna we zikoma ku Nsi .

Entababuvo ez’obutonde( natural communities) mu ntababutonde zikyuka okuyita mu enziring’ana (succession) ,ekiinza okutwaliramu obuwanvu bw’ebiseera obuli wakati w’emyaka emitono okutuuka mu mya ebikumi .

Mu kyebulungulo ky’ebiramu , omugatte gw’ebiramu ku Nsi bibadde bikolagana okumala emyaka bukadde .

Entababutonde zegabanyizzaamu entababiramu(biomes) ezisangibwa mu bitundu by’ensi ebigere .Eby’okulabirako by’entababiramu zino mulimu :

• Entababiramu ezo mu mazzi nga ennyanja, emyala , n’entobazi

• Entababiramu ezo ku lukalu nga ebibira, amalungu, n’ettale.


Buli kitundu kya Nsi kirimu obulamu obw’engeri emu oba endala ne mu bifo ebyalowoozebwanga nti temusobola kusengebwamu kiramu kyonna. Entababiramu eziri oba eziriraanye yikweta zirimu entababibinja by’ebikula by’ ebimera n’ensolo ebisingayo obungi.

Enjawulo wakati w’entababiramu n’entuumo z’ebiramu

Entuumo y’ebiramu (Biomass), gwe mugatte gw’enzitoya y’ebiramu byonna wamu ebisangibwa mu mutendera gw’omutendera gw’entababutonde. Entababiramu mu mitendera gy’entababutonde ze ziddirira ….mu ekyebulunulo ky’ebiramu .

Enjawulo wakati w’entababiramu n’ekiwangaaliro

Ekiwangaaliro kyesonjodde nnyo okusinga entababiramu . Ekiwagaaliro kikwata ku buwangaaliro ousangibwa mu kitundu ekimu ate entababiramu ne kikwata ku ntababutonde ey’omutendera gw’enkulungo y’ensi. Ka tusooke tusonjole emiramwa gino ebiri bwe tuti:

(i) Ekiwangaaliro( habitat ) kikwata ku “buwangaaliro bwa butonde” obw’ekimera oba ensolo oba ekifo ekirimu embeera entuufu okukuliramu ensolo oba ekimera.

(ii) Entababiramu( biome ) ennyonnyola entababuvo z’ensi enkulu ez’ebiramu. Entababiramu zisengekeddwa okusinziira ku entababimera esinga okusangibwa mu kifo olw’okugmira embeera eri mu kifo ekyo.

N’olwekyo ,ekiwangaaliro kikwata ku buwangaaliro bw’ekikula mu kifo ate entababiramu kikwata ku buwangaaliro bw’enkungo(global environment) okutwalira awmu.

Oyinza okweyambisa maapu y’ensi okuzuula entababiramu mw’obeera.

Sooka weekenneenye entababiramu mw’obeera n’ebiwangaaliro(habitats) ebigirimu . Webuuuze:

  • Ebika by’ebimera by’olaba
  • Embeera y’obudde eya leero(weather)
  • Obudde bubeera butya mu biseera b’omwaka (Seasons) eby’enjawulo.