Essomabibuuka

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Essomabibuuka (Aeronautics) wandikikyusizza otya mu Luganda awatali kubikkulirwa Katonda kwe yawadde Charles Muwanga!!!

Sooka omanye empalirizo ezibeera ku buli kintu ekibuuka mu bbanga, ka kibe kinyonyi oba nnyanguyirizi ya nnyonyi.Amasitula kitegeeza “amasoboza agasitula” , amasukuma, amasoboza agasukuma” , essikirizo=ensikirizo ennene(garvity).


Sooka webuuze nti ki ekisobozesa ebinyonyi okubuuka? Ebinyonyi bibuuka kubanga:

(i) Biwewufu mu buzito (ii) Birina embavu(strength) (iii) Brina obuzimbe bw’omubiri obuzibuwavu(complex) , okuli ebiwawaatiro bye bikozesa okutondeka amasitula(lift) n’amasukuma(thrust) ate era ebiwawaatiro bino ne bisobozesa ebinyonyi okuseyeeya obulungi mu bbanga nga byetengeredde bulungi (to mainatain control). Abantu lwaki tetusobola kubuuka? • Tetusobola kukola mbavu erinnya obuzito bwaffe ku nfeete , ntegeeza , obuzito bwaffe tebusobola kukka wansi wa ssikirizo lya lya nsi • Kitwetaagisa empalirizo etutwala waggulu eyitibwa amasitula (lift), omubiri gwaffe kye gutasobola kukola. • Okutondekawo amasitula (amaanyi agasitula=lift) kitwetaagisa okutondekawo amasukuma (thrust) agasobola okusukuma omubiri mu maaso. • Singa tuba tubuuse, tetuyinza kusigala waggulu bbanga ddene kubanga tetulina maanyi gasobola kwang’anga kigugubiro kya mpewo= amagugubiro (drag) .

Omuntu kagezimunyu kwe kutoondeka ennyanguyirizi (machines) okutwanguyiza ekyo kye tusanga obuzibu okukola, okubuuka.

Ebikiolebwa amasitula n’ensukuma biva mu buwawaatiro by’ennyonyi ate ekitondeka maanyi (engine) ne kikola amasukuma (thrust) oba repulsion (repulsion). Omuntu asobola okubuukabuuka naye tasobola kukola omugendo gwa kibuuka (flight) awatali biwawaatiro oba ennyanguyirizi eya kitondekamaanyi(engine).


Ennyonyi ebuuka etya? Empalirizo Z’Ebibuuka ebiramu ze zisangibwa mu bibuuka ebitondekewo omuntu , ekikolera ku bitondekamaaanyi(engines)

Sooka webuuze nti ki ekisobozesa “bbaluuni y’empewo eyokya” okuseyeeya mu bbanga? Bbaluuni ez’emewo eyokya zisobola okubuuka mu bwengula olw’ekitengejjeso (buoyancy).Ekitengejjeso eba maplirizo esindika waggulu empewo eba ankwafuwavu okusunga bbaluuni gy’egiteekako. Okiraba nti bbaluuni okusobola okuseyeeya mu bbanga obuzito bwayo ne ggaasi eri munda bulina okuba wansi w’obuzito bw’empewo ey’obubangirivu bwe bumu(equal volume) obw’empewo eyetoloodde bbaluuni eno, ekiviirako bbaluuni okusituka ng’edda waggulu.

Ekitengejjeso kye ki ?

Ebikulukusi ne ggaasi zonna wakati mu mpalirizo ey’essikirizo (gravitational force) biteeka ku kintu ekibinnyikiddwamu empalirizo esukuma waggulu(upward force) eyitibwa ekitengejjeso(buoyancy).

Singa ggasi oba ekikulukusi kiba kikwafuwavu okusinga (is more dense than ) ekintu ekyo , ekitengejjeso (buoyancy) kikiviirako okutengejja(to float). Ekiti kya muwogo ekikalu kitengejja ku mazzi agalina obubangirivu (volume) bwe bumu obw’amazi naye tekitengejja mu mpewo kubanga kikwafuwavu okusinga obubanghirivu bwe bumu obw’empewo.

Empalirizo z’ebibuuka

Okimanyi nti ennyonyi bw’eba mu mugendo gwayo mu bbanga eba mu katuubagiro kennyini wakati w’empalirizo ez’enjawulo ?

Ennyonyi okuyimuka okuva wansi , embavu y’amasukuma(thrust) galina okusinga embavu y’amagugubiro(drug) ate amasitula(lift) galina okusinga obuzito(essikirizo ly’ensi). Okusigala mu mugendo (to mainatyian flught) , amasitula galina okwenkanankana obuzito ate amasukuma galina okwenkanankana amagububiro. Mu kukka wansi , amasukuma galina okuba amatono okusinga amagugubiro ate amasitula galina okuba matono okusinga obuzito.

Okubuuka mu bbanga kyetaagisa okwanganga empalirizo y’essikirizo ly’ensi kubanga essikirizo liri buli wamu, tosobola kulyebalama. Empewo kintu ekiriwo era ekirna obuzito ky’olina okusaababalamu era nga empewo eviirako empalirizo za kibuuka bbiri , amasutula n’amagugubiro.

"Ebyebibuuka"(Aerodynamics)

"Ebyebibuuka" (aerodynamics), “engeri ennyonyi gye zibuuka" (Aerodynamics), ly’essomo ly’empalirizo n’okuva kw’ebintu mu mpewo okuleetebwawo empalirizo zino.

Bw’osoma okuva kw’empewo okwetoloola ekintu kikusobozesa okupima empalirizo z’amasitula . empalirizo esobozesa ennyonnyi okulinnya essikirizo ku nfeete n’amagugubiro, nga gano masoboza aagagugubira ennyonyi g’eyitamu ng’eri mu mugendo okuyita mu nampewo. Buli kintu ekiseyeeysa mu mpewo omuli ebinyonyi, ennyonyi,namunkanga, n’ebizungirizi kyekuusiza ku kalonda w’ebibuuka (aerodynanics).

"Ensukuma"(thrust)

Waliwo akakwate wakati wa “amasukuma “ ne “ensukuma” (ekisukuma). Amasukuma (thrust) kiva mu bigambo by’oluganda “amasoboza agasukuma” (the energy that is required to push something forward) ate ensukuma(propulsion) kiva mu bigambo by’oluganda “ empalirizo esukuma” (the force that is required to push something forward).

Okuseyeeya mu bwengula tekyetaagisa masitula gokka wabula n’amasukuma.Amasukuma ge gawa embavu esindika mu maaso n’okwang’anga amagugubiro. Ensengekera y’ekisukuma (propulsion system) kiba kitondekamaanyi (engine) ekifulumya amasukuma (thrust) okusindika ekintu nga ennyonyi oba ekizungirizi mu maaso.

Ebitondekamaanyi

Ennyanguyirizi ezibuuka ze ziwaga ( to power) ebibuuka ebisinga. Ebitondekamaanyi eby’okunu(piston engines) , ebitondekamaanyi eby’ekisukuma(jet engine) , n’ebitondekamaanyi eby’ebizungirizi byonna bigoberera ekintu kye kimu okutondeka amasukuma.Kino kibeerawo nga :

(i) Ekitondekamaanyi kitabula amafuta ne okisigyeni oba ekiwokiso (oxidizer) ekirala mu mukwesese gw’entabamuliro (combustion chamber). (ii) Ekinatabuli kikoleezebwa (iii) Ekinatabuli ekiri mu kwaka kivaamu ggaasi ezookya okuzimbulukuka (iv) Bbaasi ezizimbulukuka zitondeka amasukuma butereevu oba zikozesebwa okuindika ankunu oba empujjo (turbine).

Ebitondekamaanyi bikola bitya amasukuma oba ensukuma ?

Etteeka lya Newon ery’Okusatu ery’okuva lye litera okukozesebwa okunnyonnyola ensibuko y’amasukuma kyokka etteeka lino linnyonnyola masukuma gya gakola , si nsibuko ya masukuma. Obutonde buteeka empalirizo eya kalonda wa kibuuka(aerodynamic force) okuyita mu kanyigirizi n’ekinyigirizo. Akanyigirizi(pressure) y’ensibuko y’amasukuma esookerwako etondekebwawo ekisukumiso(propeller), ekitondekamaanyi eky’ekisukuma(jet engine), oba ekitondekamaanyi eky’ekizungirizi.

Ekitondekamaanyi eky’enkunu tekisobola kukola masukuma ku bwakyo.Kikiba kiwa ekisukumiso ekitebenta ne kivaako okufullumya amasukuma nga kitondekawo enjawuzo ey’akanyigirizi wakat w’emabega ne mumaaso g’ekisukumiso(propeller), ekiviirako emaplirizo esukuma mu maaso. Ensukuma(jets) oba ebizungirizi zitondeka amasitula nga zirinnyisa akanyigirizi mu kitondekamaanyi munda.

Akanyigirizi kano akarinnyise mu kitondekamaanyi ky’ensukuma oba ekizungirizi kateeka empalirizo esingako ku bwolekero obudda mu maaso okusinga obw’emabega. Okusinziira ku teeka lya Newton ery’okusatu , ggaasi za kazambi (exaust gases) ezifulumizibwa ekisukumiso(propeller), ensukuma oba ekizungirizi ziba zituusibwako empalirizo eya kikontana era eyenkanankana amasukuma g’ekitondekamaanyi.N’olwekyo ekifulumyakazambi kiva ku masukuma.

Empalirizo ennya ez’ebibuuka

Emaplirizo ennya ezibeera ku bibuuka zirimu:

  1. Obuzito. Obuzito eba mpalirizoya ssikirizo lya nsi. Empalirizo eno esika ezza wansi okudda mu makkati g’ensi.
  2. Amasitula(amasoboza agasitula). Amasitula y’empalirizo esibula ku peto eryesimbu ku bwolekero bw’omugendo okuyita mu mpewo.Amasitula gava mu njawulo mu kanyigirizi k’ampewo.
  3. Amasukuma(amasoboza agasukuma). Amasukuma y’empalirizo esukumisa ennyanguyirizi ebuuka mu bwolekero bw’omugendo. Ebitondekamaanyi bivaamu amasukuma.
  4. Amagugubiro (Drag) y,empalirizo eva mu kikontana ku bwolekero bw’omugendo.Amagugubiro gava ku kikuubagano(friction) n’enjawlo mu k’empewo.

Manya:

  1. Ennyonyi bw’aba mu mugendo omugolokofu ku misinde egy’entakyuka(constant speed), amasitula g’etondekawo genkanyanknanya obuzito(essikirizo) ate amasukuma genkanankana n’amagugubiro.Kyokka okwekanyanknanya kuno okw’empalirizo kukyuka nga ennyonyi etumbiira oba ekka , okwongeza emisinde n’okukendeeza emisinde awamu n’okuweta .
  2. Ekizungirizi kyetaaga empalirizo bbiri zokka. Ekizungirizi kirina obuzito, ne mu buyitiro obwetoloola era kyeyambisa amasukuma okutuuka mu bwengula na buli kye kikola .Kyokka amasitula n’amagugubiro, ebiva mu mugendo okuyita mu mpewo , tebibaawo mu bwengula awatali mpewo.