Essomabuzaale (Genetics)

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Essomabuzaale(Genetics) ,okusinziira ku Charles Muwanga , ssomo lya essomabiramu(biology)erinoonyereza ku nnabuzaale(genes) z'obutaffaali.Essomabuzaale lyekuusiza ku :

(i) Obutaffaali (body cells) (ii)Endagabuzaale oba ennabuzaale (genes). (ii) Endagabutonde (DNA) (iii) Obusekese (Chromosomes)

Essomabuzaale (Genetics)

Munda mwa buli kataffaali ka kiramu, ekimera oba ensolo, mulimu emigereko gy’ebiragiro egiyitibwa endagabuzaale , mu bumpimpi “ennabuzaale” (genes). Endagabuzaale oba ennabuzaale ziraga oba ziwa endagabutonde ebiragebiragiro ku ki ekimera oba ensolo bwe kirina okufaanana , oba omubiri okukola ebigubezaawo nga mulamu .

Ennnabuzaale zino ziri ku luwuzi oluwanvu olwa matiriyo eyitibwa Endagabutonde(DNA) ate endagabutonde ez’enjawulo nazo ne zikola ebinwa ebiwanvu (long strands) ebiyitibwa obusekese mu ngeri y’emu olusekese lw’enkul bwe lubaamu enku ez’enjawulo ezikola olusekese. Kino kitegeeza nti ng’olusekese lw’enku bwe lubaamu enku ez’enjawulo mu mubiri gw’omuntu mu buli kataffaali buli kasekese kabaamu endagabutonde(DNA) .

Olusekese oba ekinwa lubaamu enku ez’enjawulo ezisibiddwa awamu. Mu ngeri y’emu akasekese akamu kabaamu endagabutonde ez’enjawulo. Ennabuzaale kiba kitundu ku endagabutonde.

Essomabuzaale (genetics) kye ki?

Essomabuzaale liba ssomo lya buzaale bwa biramu bwe bisikira okuva mu bizadde bwabyo . Essomabuzaale sayansi assoma engeri ebiramu gye bisikira “enkula” (traits) n’enjawukanyo (variation) z’ebizadde byabyo mu birungo by’obutafaali bwabyo okuva ku mulembe ogumu okudda ku mulala.

Mu nsonjola ennambulukufu essomabuzaale ly’essomo ly’engeri ebiramu gye bisikiramu andabika zabyo nga langi y’amaaso, ennyindo, obuwanvu, n’ennayisa okuva ku bizadde byabyo. Munnasayansi akuguka mu essomabuzimbe ayitibwa munnassomabuzaale (Geneticist).


Singa taata alina enviiri eza munyerere azaala omwana , mu kiseera kitono enviiri ziyinza okutandika okulabika ng’eza Taata. Kino bwe kibaawo, omwana aba asikidde (inherit) ennabuzaale =endagabuzaale(genes) okuva mu kitaawe era obutaffaali bw’enviiri zaabwe butba n’endagabutonde (DNA) ze zimu.


Obuzaale oba essomabuzaale (genetics) lya mugaso mu bantu, ebisolo, n’ebimera awamu n’obutaffali obulamu obulala. Ekimera kiyinza okusikiza ekyana kyakyo enkula ng’obungi bw’ebibala bye kissa, langi y’ebimuli bye kireeta n’obuzimbe bw’emirandira okuyita mu nsigo evaamu ekimera ekifaanagana n’ekizadde kyakyo.


Ennabuzaale(Genes)


Okimanyi nti tewabangawo muntu akufaanana mu buli ngeri ebitundu kikumi ku kikumi , era talibeerawo? Bwe wetunuulira, olowooza waliwo omuntu omulala afaanana n’awe mu buli kintu , enkula n’embeera ez’obuntu ? Nedda, oli muntu alina enkula, endabika, obusobozi bw’omulengera, n’embera z’obuntu ez’enjawulo.


Kyokka era kkiriza oba gaana, oyinza okufaanana ne kitaawo, maama wo, oba muganda wo yadde si kikumi ku kikumi. Kino kireetebwawo ekiyitibwa ennabuzaale =endagabuzaale (genes). Osaana okimanye nti ennabuzaale ziringa mpapula okuwandiikiddwako ebiragiro ebifuga buli ekigenda mu maaso mu mibiri gyaffe. Ennabuzaale ziba molekyu eziwa ndagabutonde (DNA) mu mibiri gyaffe ebiragiro oba obubaka obwekusifu okukola ebintu eby’enjawulo mu mubiri gw’ekiramu.


Kigambibwa nti buli kataffaali kabaamu ennabuzaale ezisoba mu mitwalo ebiri zonna nga zikolera wamu. Ennabuzaale zino zibaamu enkusiko (codes) , ntegeeza obubaka obwekusifu obuviirako ekyo ebiramu kye bisikira okuva mu bizadde.


Tewerabiranga nti ennabuzaale kitundubutundu ku endagabutoonde (DNA), eno nga kemiko (chemical) ebaamu olukusiko lw’obuzaale (genetic code) ekola ebizimba mubiri ebikola obutaffaali obulamu (living cells).


Ebizimbamubiri (proteins) ze bbulooka ezizimba ebiramu. Kumpi buli kintu mu mibiri gyaffe, amagumba, omusaayi n’emifumbi bikolebwa bizimbamubiri (proteins) era mulimu gwa nnabuzaale okukola ku ntondeka y’ebizimbammubiri.


Ennabuzaale tosobola kuziraba n’amaso agali obukunya (naked eye), wetaaga enzimbulukusa ez’amaanyi era ennabuzaale mu butonde zaakula nga wuzi ezisangibwa mu busekese bw’endagabutonde (Chromosome)


Ennabuzaale eziriko obulemu (Mutated genes)


Oluusi omuntu aba n’ennabuzaale ezitakola bulungi , z’ayinza okuba ng’azisikidde okuva mu bazadde be . Ennabuzaale ezo mu luganda zigambibwa okuba nga ziriko obulemu aba ziyite “ennabuzaale nnemu” (mutatated or altered genes). Ennabuzaale “ennemu” tezikola mirimu gyazo bulungi era zivaako obukyamu ku bitundu by’emibiri gy’ebiramu.


Ebimu ku birwadde ebisikire nga kookolo n’obutaffaali obw’eggabo (sickle cell) buva ku nnagabuzaale ennemu (mutated genes), zino nga z’endagabuzaale eziriko obulemu. Endagabutonde (DNA)


Eky’olungereza DNA ekitegeeza endagabutonde kiggwayo “Deoxyribonucleric Acid” nga eno “molekyu” esangibwa kumpi mu butaffaali bw’ebiramu bwonna.

Endagabutonde (DNA) ebaamu “olukusiko” (Code), luno nga lulimi olukusike olubeeramu obubaka obwekusifu , olutereka obubaka obukozesebwa ennabuzaale obusobozesa ebiramu okukola. Endagabutonde esangibwa mu butaffaali bwonna mu buzimbe obuyitibwa “Obusekese” (Chromosomesa) nga buno bwe buterekero bw’endagabutonde.


Endagabutonde(DNA) esangibwa mu buziizi (nucleas) bwa butaffaali , eno eyitibwa endagabutonde ey’obuziizi (nuclear DNA). Kyokka endagabutonde emu esangibwa mu “kyondo” (Mitochondira) ky’aketaffaali era eno eyitibwa endagabutonde ey’ekyondira (mitochondrid DNA).

Obutaffaali bwonna mu kiramu ekimu bubaamu endagabutonde y’emu. Endagabutonde ekolebwa bbesi ez’ekimemiko (Chemical bases) nnya : a) Adenanyina (adenine A) b) Ganayina G( guanine G) c) Katosayine C (Cytosine C) d) Tayimayine T (Thymine T)

Bbeesi z’ekikemiko(endagabuzimbe) zino zisangibwa mu ludaala olunyooleze (twisted ladder) oluyitibwa nabbulula oludaala olwa nabbirye (Double Helix).

Mu bantu bbeesi zonna ze zimu naye ensegeka oba enzirinngana ya njawulo mu buli muntu. Endagabutonde eyinza okweyabuluzaamu (duplicate) oba okwekoppa. Eno y’ensonge obutaffaali bwonna mu muntu kinnomu buba n’endagubutonde y’emu.

Ekinwa (strandi) ky’endagabutonde kikolebwa ennyukuta GATC , ennyukuta zino zisengekebwa mu ngeri ekola ebigambo. Ebigambo byesengeka okukola ekinnamakulu (sentences). Ebinnamakulu oyinza okubiyita ennabuzaale (genes). Ennabuzale ewa ebiragira, obutaffaali bwonna mu mubiri okukola ekyo ekyabutonderwa nga bwe kirambikiddwa mu endagabutonde zaffe omuli n’okukola ebizimbamubiri.


Obusekese (chromosomes) kye ki?

Obusekese bugeraageranye n’olusekese lw’enku omubeera enku ennyingi mu kinwa kimu. Akasekese kaba binwa (strands) bya ndagabutonde ebingi ebisibiddwa awamu ng’ekinwa ky’enku oba olusekese lw’enku.

Bbeesi ez’endagabuzimbe (chemicals bases) mu ndagabutonde zikuumirwa mu bifo byazo ne oludaala olwa nabbirye (Double Helix).

Oluddaala olwa nabbirye lugenda mu maaso okwezinga ku bizimbamubiri. Oludaala olwa nabbirye lwezinga ku molekyo ez’ebizimbamubiri okusobola okukola ekiyitibwa “akasekese” (Chromosome) k’endegabutonde

Obusekese (Chromosomes) busangabwa mu buziizi(in the nucleus) bwa kataffaali.

"Obusekeese" (Chromosomes)


Omuwendo gw’obusekese mu kataffaali gusinziira ku ki akataffaali kye kali. Omuntu aba n’obusekese 46 mu buli kataffaali. Obusekese buno buli mu migereko ebiri egyo’obusekese 23. Buli muntu asikira obusekese 23 okuva ku maama n’obusekese 23 okuva ku taata. Eno y’ensonga lwaki buli muntu aba n’enkula (traits) okuva mu maama ne taata we.


x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xxxxxxxxx x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xxxxxxxxx

Akasekese aka 23 ka kizadde (sex). Nga tutunuulira obusekese obuba mu kataffaali tuba tusobola okumanya ekizadde” (sex) ky’omwana ali mu lubuto. Ebisajja biba n’obusekese obwekizadde XY ate ebikazi xx. Buno buyitibwa “busekese bwa kizadde (sex chromosomes).

Obusekese bw’ekizedde(Sex chromosomes) kye ki?

Wakati mu kwegatta kw’ekisajja n’ekikazi, ekisajja kifulumya akataffaali ak’empakisolo (sperm cell) ate ekikazi ne kifulamya akatafaali ak’empako (ova cell). Jjukira nti tumaze okulaba nti omubiri gw’omuntu gulina emigogo gy’obusekese 23 mu buli kataffaali nga ku migogo gino , omugogo ogwa 23 ke kasekese ko ak’ekizadde (sex chromosome). Ebisajja biba n’obusekese XY ate ebikazi obusekese XX

Mu kuwaka, buli kizadde kiwaayo akasekese, ekikazi kiwaayo akasekese aka X kubanga ekikazi kirina obusekese xx (xx chromosome.

Ekisajja kifulumya akasekese x oba y mu ngeri etali ya kyeyagalire. Singa ekisajja kifulumya akasekese aka x kiba kigatta x eno ku kasekese x ak’ekikazi okukola xx , ekizadde kyakyo kiba kya kiwala. Singa ekisajja kifulumya akasekese ak’ekikazi aka Y , kivaamu ekito ekirina ekizadde eky’ekisajja oba ekirenzi.

Ku mulembe guno, abakugu basobola okukola okuwakisa wabweru w’omubiri (K W B = I V F) mu lungereza “in vitro fertilization” wano, obutaffaali obw’ekisajja n’ekikazi bujjibwa mu bazadde mu laabu.

Mu kiwakiso wabweru w’omubiri (K W B), kakensa asobola okulondako kizadde ki (which sex) ky’ayagala okuwakisa. Kino kitegeeza oyinza okulondako omulenzi oba omukazi. Ensikizo z’obuzaale (Genetic Inheritances).

Okusikira ekintu kitegeesa okufuna ekintu okuva kw’oyo abadde nnyinikyo. Mu essomanuzimbe, ensikizo (inheritance) kitegeeza nti ekito kifuna oba kisikira enkula ezimu okuva ku bizadde, mama ne taata. Endagabuzaale ez’abazadde ze zisinzirako enkula zaffe.

"Enkyotala" (Allelle)

Oluusi, omuntu y’omu abaamu ennaabuzaale ez’enjawulo. Zino ziyitibwa nkyotala (alleles).

Eky’okulabirako, olina enviri za kaweke kubanga ne maama oba taata wo yalina za kaweke. Ne bwe baba nga tebaalina za kaweke, nga za munyerere, nnabuzaale mu butaffaali bwabwe ziyiriza okubaamu enviiri eza kaweka okuva ku bajjajja era nga naawe kaweke ono baamukusiza.

Ennabuzaale ze zisalawo ku nkula y’enviri , ey’amaaso, obuwanvu oba obunene bwaffe. Omuntu oba ne kopi bbiri ez’obakyotala bwe bumu oba “kyotalemu” (homozygons) ate oyo oba ne kopi bbiri ez’enjawuli ez’ennabuzaale yonna, “kyotalabbiri (heterozygens).

Obukyotozo (moles) butuyamba okumenya endwadde ez’ebuzaale ze tuyinza okuba nga twasikira okuva mu bazadde baffe. Obukyotalozo n’endagabuzaale biyamba abakugu okumanya oba nga omwana an’asikira ekirwadde ky’obutaffaali obweggabo (sickle cell) n’endwadde endala.


Enjawukana y’Obuzaale (Genetic Variations)


Ebiramu binnakimu mu kibinja ky’ebiramu tebiba bye bimu ddala. Buli kiramu mu kibinja kirina omugereko gw’enkula ng’ekigero , langi obuwanvu, obunene, n’enneyisa enjawulo.

Oluse lw’ebiramu ebizaalibwa ebizadde bye bimu biba n’enjawukana neene. Oyinza okwesanga nti mu b’oluganda bana, omu aba n’enviri za kaweke, ate omulala naba mumpi, omulala wa kitema ate omulala muwanvu nnyo.

Enjawukana ezo mu biramu ebirina ebizadde by’ebimu ziyitibwa njawukano (variation). Ebisonjozo oba enkula eba esikiziddwa eva ka “biragiro bya nnabuzaale” (genetic information).Kyokka enkula endala ng’ enjogera , enjatula y’ebigambo , obugonvu bw’olususu (texture) oba obunene ziyinza okuva ku buwangaaliro bw’ekiramu nga:

- Biki by’olya. - Embeera y’obudde mw’oba oli. - Ebyobuwangwa. - Enneyisa yo. - Olilimu lw’oyogesa , oba - Obubenje

Oluusi omuntu ayinza okuba nga mu butufu alina enkula etali nsikire naye lwa kuba waliwo embeera ezitali za buzaale ezimuviiriddeko okulaga enkula etali ya buzaale bwe. Omwana ayinza okulwala amaaso ne galabika ng’amamyufu. Eno eba njawukana ereeteddwa obulwadde. Ate era omwana eyandibadde omuwanvu mu buzaale ayinza okukonziba olw’endwadde n’edyambi mu buto bwe.

Okukoppulala (Clopping)

Okukoppulula (clonning) kitegeeza okukola kopi y’ekiramu endala yennyini nga weyanbisa sayansi w’essomabuzaale (genetic Science). Mu essomabuzaale (genetically), okukoppulula kitegesa okutondekawo kopi y’ekiramu endala yennyini , emmere ey’emirandira nga lumonde n’ebirandira bitera okukoppululwa.

Okukoppulula kuyinza okuba okw’obutonde oba okukolebwa omuntu . Mu buttoned , okuzaala abalongo abafaanagana kiva ku kataffaali ak’ekizadde (sexual cell) okweyabulazaamu wakati mu kiwakiso (during fertilization) okuwakisa abalongo.