Obuwango Obusookeso(Prefixes)

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Gakuweebwa Charles Muwanga !! Obuwango Obusookeso (Prefixes)

i) Ebya

Ebya-prefix denotes (a) The technology of…(ebikolebwa mu…)

(b) Teaching about … (okuyigiriza ku)

( c) Concerned with… (ebikwata ku…) Examples:


Terminology Etymological definition English Synonym

1 Ebyempima Ebikwata ku mpima

To do with dimensions Geometry Essomampima/Essomankula

2 Ebyobuziba Ebikwata ku buziba

Concerning with atoms Chemistry -

3 Ebyobuzimbe Ebikwata ku buzimbe

Concerned with structures Physics Essomabutonde


ii) “Ekidda-“


This prefix denotes forward or backward movement. Examples:

• “Ekiddannyuma” (negative, reverse)

• “Ekiddamaaso” (positive, forward movement)

Examples:“Ennamba za kiddannyuma” (negative numbers) or “ennamba za kiddamaaso“(positive numbers). But we can also borrow and adopt these mathematics concepts directly from English as follows: Ennamba za negatiivu (negative numbers or ennamba za pozitiivu (positive numbers).

iii) “Enta-“

This prefix means “without” as in;

 Entakyuka (without change, mathematical constant)  Entakoma (without stopping, mathematical infinity)

Examples: • omugendo ogw’entakoma (infinity Movement/motion) • Okuva okw’entakoma (continuous motion); • Entamanyika (existing without being Known , the unknown, variable). • Entagegenda(without movement, without motion)

Examples: • Entagenda (statics in physics) • Amasannyalaze ag’entagenda (Static electricity)


iv) “Obwa-“ :


This denotes “practice of” or “exhibiting ...” .or “...sm”.

Examples:

a) Obwakatonda (Practice of godliness, divinity)

b) Obwakalimagezi (intelligence, exhibiting intelligence, the Practice of intelligence)+

c) Obwanakalyakaani (the practice of socialism, Socialism)

d) Obwasitakange (the practice of capitalism, Capitalism)

e) Obwannalukalala (reactionalism)

f) Obwanakyemalira (practice of dictatorship, Dictatorship)

g) Obwannakyewa (practice of volunteerism, voluntarism)

Note that omugezior omuntu omugezi translates“a wise person” and “kalimagezi” is translated“intelligent man”. Amagezi translates “wisdom”but “obwakalimagezi“translates “the practice of intelligence (intelligence).

Generally, the various concepts associaated with the word “amagezi” (wisdom) are :

a) Obwakalimagezi (intelligence). “Obwakalimagezi” is a compound word whose root is “amagezi” (wisdom). This root is combined with a prefix “obwa…”(practice of) to produce the concept of “obwakalimagezi”(intelligence).


b) Omuntu-kalimagezi (intelligent man). Omuntu-kalimagezi is a hyphanated compound of two words, “omuntu”(man, human being) and “kalimagezii (intelligent person). You can also just say “kalimagezi “to mean “intelligent man”.

c) Koma-sapiyensa (Homo sapiens). It is a loan-word borrowed from the english “homo sapiens”. (wise man).Koma-sapiyensa can also be translated “Omuntu kalimagezi”

d) Ensolo kalimagezi (intelligent animal ). This is a concept of two seperated compound words, ensolo (animal) and kalimagezi (intelligent being, a genius). The synonyms are “omuntu kalimagezi” (intelligent man) or “kalimagezi” (intelligent man) or omuntu omugezi (wise man).


e) Omulengera (the human “mind). This concept is formed by blending of the words “omwoyo ogukulengeza” (the spirit that illuminates) to get“omulengera”(the soul of foresight, the spirit that foresees). “Omulengera” (the mind) is a faculty of the brain that brings about critical thinking, analysis, knwowing, understanding and discovery, among others.


f) Nnyoloni (neuron). This is a loan-word from the english word “neurons”. Nnyoloni (neurons) are simply the building blocks of the brain. The Luganda word “nnyoloni” is pronounced starting with “nnyo..sound and not “nyu..sound” which sounds like “new”. The neurons are determinants of human intelligence and the functioning of “omulengera”(the human mind). The synonym for “nnyoloni”(neuron) is “Obutaffaalikazimbabwongo”(the building blocks of the brain) which is a compoud word made of three words, obutaffaali (cells), obuzimba (to build), and the brain (obwongo). Obutaffaalikazimbabwongo are the neurons.

g) Ekipimo ky’Obwakalimagezi (EkkyO). The Luganda concept for“Intelligence Quostient” (IQ) is “Ekipimo ky’Obwakalimagezi” abreviated as “EkkyO”. It is a coumpound of seperated words “ekipimo (measure), kya (of) and obwakalimagezi (intelligence).

h) Okukozesa obwongo (reasoning). “Okukozesa obwongo”(reasoning) is formed from two words “okukozesa(to make use of) and “obwongo”(the brain). The synonyms for okukozesa obwongo would be “okusengeka ebirowoozo (logic). The process of “okukozesa obwongo”(reasoning) includes okulowooza (thinking), okwefumiitiriza (critical thinking), okwekenneenya or okulambulula (analysis), okukuba-ekifaaananyo (imagination), okujjukira (memorisation), okusengeka ensonga (logic), n’okugoba ensonga (dialectical thinking) which is also called “okulowooza okwa mugobansonga”(dialectical thinking).

i) Okulambika ebirowoozo (inductive reasoning). “Okulambika ebirowoozo” (inductive reasoning) is a concept formed by semantic expansion. Ordinarily it means “to argue by showing sense” of your argument.

j) Okulambulula Ebirowoozo (Deductive Reasoning).

k) Okusengeka Ebirowoozo (Logic)

l) Endowooza Esengeka Ebirowoozo(Logical Thinking)

m) Entondeka Y’ebikole(Production Of Commodities)

n) Kagezimunyu(Genius)

o) Mulowooza(Cerebrum)

p) Sekalowooleza(Thinker)

q) Sekalowooleza Owamaanyi (Male Great thinker)

r) Nakalowooleza owamaanyi (Female Great thinker)

s) Firosofa(Philosophy)

t) Omufirosoofa(Philosopher/Great Thinker)

u) Basekalowooleza Ab’amaanyi ( Great Thinkers)


v) “ Obu-1“

   This prefix also denotes “act of “, skill and character e.g.

a) Obutujju (terrorism, act of terrorism)

b) Obufere (act of false pretense, coning )

c) Obunyunyunsi (exploitation, act of exploitation)

d) Obunyukufu (skill or act of using letters, literacy)

e) Obunukufu (same as above, literacy)

The concept of obunyukufu or obunukufu (literacy) has been derived from the Luganda word “ennyukuta” or “ennukuta” (Luganda for “letter”). More words have been derived from the new concept of “obunyukufu/obunukufu”. These include:

a) Omunyukufu (omuntu omunukufu) literate person

b) Omunyukufu owa kibogwe semi-literate person


vi) “Obu –2means “state of…”.

It is also used to form nouns from verbs e.g.

• Obukambivu (state of being vicious, viscosity) • Obukwatufu (state of being vicious, viscosity) • Obukwafu (state of massiveness, thickness). • Obukwafuwazu (density)

vii) “Obwe- (denotes trait of, condition of, shape of )e.g.

• Obwenkanya (justice, justly) • Obwesimbu (trustworthy, height ) • Obwekulungirivu (spherical in shape ) • Obwetoloovu (circumference, being circular) • Obweraliikirivu (worry)

viii) Essoma-denotes “study of..”, “science o…f “e.g.

• Essomampimo (Geometry, Study of Geometry) • Essomansi (Geography • Esomanjazi (Geology) • Essomabutonde (Physics, Science of Nature) • Essomabuzimbe (Chemistry) • Essomampuyisatu (Trigonometry) • Essomabiramu (Biology) • Essomabutonzi (Divinity) • Essomabinyunyunsi (Parasitology) • Essomaddagala (Medicine) • Essomabuyambi (Nursing) • Entomology (Essomabiwuka ebireetendwadde)

See the list of essoma-words at end of this book.

ix) En-words 1.En-denotes “the way of doing something”, “the means of doing something” e.g. • Entambula (transportation ), • Endya (dieting, the way eating is balanced) • Enkola (policy, the guiding principle) • Endyennungi (balanced eating), • Eng’enda (velocity, the way something is moving).


x) En-words2.”En-”can also be used to derive a noun from a verb e.g.

• Enzitoya (mass) and • Enzitoyo (matter) both derived from the verb “okuzitoya” (to give weight to something, to make something heavy) or obuzito (weight). • Entabaganya (Society) is derived from the verb “okutabaganya” (to socialize, to mediate)or “okutabagana” (to mix with others, to relate with others)

xi) Omu-words. Omu-is used to refer to a human being. Omu- also denotes a number or a value (omuwendo). It is used to derive the mathematics concepts : • “Omugerageranyo”(ratio), that is, omuwendo ogugerageranya.

Note: “Ekigerageranyo” (rate) has been derived from the Luganda verb “okugerageranya (to compare). And as you know, the English concepts “ratio” and “rate” both have to do with mathematical comparisons.”Ekigerageranyo is from the phrase “ekibalo ekigerageranya ku buli namunigina”.

• “Omukunuukirizo” (estimation) is a derivation from the Luganda verb okukunuukiriza (to aim at, to reach out for).The new mathematical concept of “okuzingako” (to round off) is a derivation from the Luganda word “okuzinga” (to fold). Omukunuukirizo is from the phrase “omuwendo omukunuukirize”.

• Omutonnyeze. The mathematical concept of “omutonnyeze” (decimal number) is a derivation from the Luganda noun “akatonnyeze” (point). When you add the prefix omu-, you get “omutonnyeze” (decimal value, decimal number). Omutonnyeze is from the phrase “omuwendo ogw’akatonnyewze”.

xii) Eki…words. The prefix ‘eki.” denotes “ekibalo kya…” (The mathematics of.) Or “ekikube kya” (the drawing of …” Or ekigambululo ekifundiwaze (initialized statement, word). Examples:

• Ekifundiwazo (acronym) • Ekibalirizo (arithmetic) • Ekikyusaganyo (transformation) • Ekifaanaganyo (reflection) • Ekifaananyo (image) • Ekyetoloozo (rotation) • Ekiseetulo (displacement) • Ekiseetuko (translation) • Ekikwataganyo (coordinate) • Ekikwanaganya (mapping diagram)

xii) Va-words.The prefixes “va…”indicates an act of “motion or movement”. For example

a) The verb ‘oku-va (to move) forms the concept of “motion” by conversion

b) Vatomu (va + atomu) means ion, an atom which is in a state of motion or movement of electrons, either by loss of electrons or gaining of electrons

c) Vatone (vatomu +negatiiivu) means “anion”. This happens in a situation where there has been gaining of electron leading to a negative atom.

d) Vatopo (vatomu + pozitiivu) means “cat ion”. This happens in a situation where there has been loss of electrons leading to a positive atom.

e) Vampawengwa (va+ nampawengwa) or “vampa”is the Luganda concept for“isotope”. “Vampawengwa” (Vampa) is formed when some atoms of the same element lose neutrons (nampawengwa). “Loss of neutrons”or “to loose neutrons”implies” moton or movement of neutrons from some atoms of the same element.

xiii) Olu-words. The prefix“olu-“is used to point at the various literary forms in Luganda’ olu- could mean “olugero lwa…”(the story of) or “olulimi”(language form)as “olugerageranyo” (simile) and “olufaanaganyo”(metaphor)