Obuwango Obuvannyuma(suffixes)

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Gakuweebwa Charles Muwanga !! Obuwango obuvannyuma (suffixes)

a) “–lula” which denotes “undo”e.g. okulambulula (to factor numbers, to undo composite numbers)

b) “-wamu” which denotes “together” or “common” e.g. “enkubise ey’awamu” (common multiple) endowooza ey’awamu(common thinking, Ideology), "nambuluzo eyawamu" (common factor)

c) ”-na” which denotes “corresponding” or,“together” e.g.“okukolagana” (working together). “Okugendana (to be proportional), “okukwatagana (getting together); okugendagana (to correspond).

d) “-ggana” which denotes ( same distance apart but never to meet) e.g.“okugendaggana”(to be parallel)

e) “-wo” which denotes “to put in place” e.g. okutondawo (to create), okutondekawo (to produce), okubajjawo (to put in place a piece of furniture) or Okulimawo (to put in place a garden of )

f) “-logia”, the study of, the science of e.g. tekinologiya

g) “-wala” denotes “to become “Okutondowala” basically means “to become water droplets” which is “condensation”.

h) “-nyo” and “-o” words. Many technical nouns are derived from verbs using the suffix“-nyo” or”-o”. Examples:

(a) Ekisonjozo (Characteristic) (b) Ekinnyonnyozo (Property) (c) Omugerageranyo (Ratio) (d) Omugeranyo (Average) (e) Ekigerageranyo (Rate) (f) Ekigeranyo (Quotient) (g) Omukendeezo (Discount) (h) Omuganyulo (Interest) (i) Omuganyulwo (Interest) (j) Ensirisowazo (Abbreviation) (k) Okusirisiwaza (to abbreviate (l) Ekifundiwazo (Acronym) (m) Enfundiwazo/ensirisowazo (abbreviation) (n) Okufundiwaza (to acrinimize)

Other examples of derived concepts include: (i) The concepts of “entabaganya” (society) and “entabaganyabantu” (human society) which are derivations from the Luganda verb “okutabagana” (to socialize) or “okutabanganya” (to mediate).

(ii) Okutondeka (to produce, the act of creation by man) and entondeka y’ebikole (production) are derivations from “okutonda” (the act of creation by God) or “okutondeka” (to create, the act of creation by man). In Luganda we can now say that “ensibuko y’obugagga bw’amawanga eri mu “ntondeka ya bikole” (“the source of the wealth of nations is production”.

(iii) The mathematical concepts of “okulambulula namba” (to analyse, to factor numbers) and ennambuluzo (factors of a number) are derivations from the Luganda word “okulambulula” (to explain in detail). From the concept of “okulambulula namba” the following mathematical concepts are derived:

• Namba ennambulukufu composite numbers • Namba ezerambulula composite numbers • Namba ezitali nambulukufu prime number • Namba eziterambulula prime numbers

(iv) The mathematical concept of “okugendaggana” (to be parallel, parallelism) is derived from blending the two Luganda words“okugendana” (to match, to be equal in strength or magnitude, to correspond with) plus “okugaanagana” (but never to meet). Through semantic extension, the meaning of the word “okugendana” is extended to refer to the mathematical concept of “being proportional to” but when combined with the word “okugaanagana” we get the concept “okugendaggana” (to be parallel). Other mathematical concepts derived from this are:

• Amaweto agagendagana ( corresponding angles) • Okugendanakifuulannenge (inverse proportionality) • Layini ezigendaggana (parallel lines) • Enkoloboze ezigendaggana (parallel lines) • Emisittale egigendaggana (parallel lines ) • Omugendanyo (proportion) • Emigendanyo (proportions)

(v) The concepts of kikontana (opposite of) or “ebintu ebya kikontana” (things that are opposite) are derived from the Luganda word “okukontana” (to contradict, to correspond with, to be the opposite of, to be contrary to). Other derivations from the word “okukontana” include:

• Obumu bw’ebikontana the unity of opposites

(vi) The concepts of “okutomeggana” (to react chemically), ekitomeggano (chemical reaction) and ebitomeggero (reactors) are derivations from the borrowed (loan word) “atomu” or “akatoffaalikazimbakintu” (atom). What takes place at atomic level among atoms to cause a chemical change is what is called “okutomeggana” (to react chemically).

(vii) The concept of “enkyukakyuka ez’ebuziba” (chemical change) is a compound word from the Luganda word “ebuziba”or”obuziba” (the innermost part, the farthest part, the core). When compounded with the word “enkyukakyuka” (change) we get a new concept in chemistry: “enkyukakyuka ez’ebuziba (chemical change”).The opposite is “enkyukakyuka ezo kungulu” (physical change).

(viii) The concept of “omugendo” (movement in a straight line, a ray) is derived from the Luganda verb “okugenda” (to move, to go). Other concepts created from this concept are:

• Omugendo gw’ekitangaala (light ray) • Omugendo gw’amasannyalaze (current) • Omugendo gw’amasoboza (a ray or movement of Energy) • Ekigendo (vector )

The synonym of “omugendo” (movement) is “okuva” (Motion). Okuva refers to any kind of motion, whether it is a continous motion in a straight line or not, even mere vibration of atoms in the chair I am seated on is okuva but not omugendo.

(ix) The concept of “omukwanaganyo (relation), or emikwanaganyo egy’Kibalangulo” (mathematical relations) are derivations from the Luganda word “okukwanaganya” (to relate or coordinate things) which is itself from the word “okukwana” (to make friendship).

(x) The concept of “omukwataganyo” (function) and “omukwataganyo gw’ekibalangulo” (mathematical function) are derivations from the Luganda word “okukwataganya (to link, to connect, to make compatible). In mathematics “emikwataganyo” (functions) are a subset of “emikwanaganyo” (relations).

(xi) The concepts of “omugereko” (set) and “emigereko gy’ekibalangulo” (mathematical sets) are derivations from the Luganda word “okugereka” (to arrange in groups).

(xii) The mathematical concept “ebiyingo” (polynomials) or “Naamayingo” (polynomials) is a derivation from the Luganda word “ennyingo” (joint, term). Other concepts derived from the word “ennyingo” include:

• Nnyingemu(monomial) • Nnyingobbiri(binomial) • Nnyingosatu (trinomial) • Nnyingo ezifanagana(like terms) • Nnyingo ezitafaanagana(unlike terms)

The above derivations are blends or compound words.

(xiii) The mathematical concept of “omuganyulo” or “omuganyulwo” (interest) is a derivation from the verb “okuganyula” (to benefit, to be useful to). Other terms derived from this concept include:

• Omuganyulo omwangu(simple interest) • Omuganyulo omuzibuwavu(compound interest) • Okubaza omuganyulo(calculating interest) • Omuganyulo gwa banka(bank interest) • Omuganyulo gw’ekyewolo(loan interest )

(xiv) The mathematical concept “omukendeezo” (discount) is derived from the word”okukendeeza” (to reduce). It can also be referred to as “ekikendeezo” (ekitundu ekikendeezeddwa ku mutemwa).

(xv) The mathematical concept “omujjuulirizo” or “enzijuulirizo” (top up, subsidy) is a derivation from “okujjuuliriza” (to top up).

(xvi) The concepts of “omugereeso” (math theory), “eggereeso” (theorem), and ekigereeso (scientific theory) are derivations from the word “okugereesa” (to theorise, to make a guess). From this we derive the concepts of:

• Omugereeso gwa namba (number theory) • Eggereeso lya payisoggolaasi (the Pythagoras Theorem) • Ekigereeso ky’ensikirizo the theory of gravity • Ekigereeso ky’Ensikaggano the theory of attraction

(xvii) The concept of “ekiyumba ekigerere” (green house) is a compound of two words “ekiyumba” (structure) and “ekigerere” (with measured conditions). The concept of “ekigerere” is itself derived from the verb “okugera” (to rationalize the conditions/the measurements). (xviii) The concept of “engerekera” (instincts) is derived from the noun “okugereka (to pre-determine, to pre-arrange). From the concept of engerekera(instinct), we can derive various concepts like : • Engerekera y’okuva mu mbeera( the instinct of motion) • Engerekera y’okwelwanako ( the instinct of self defense) • Namugereka” ( the Author of instincts(God) • Ebikolwa ebigerekere (instinctive acts) • Enneeyisa engerekere ( instinctive behavior)

(xix) From the mathematical concept of “Omufunza” (exponent) are derived the following mathematical concepts:

a) Mufunza (exponentiation) b) Omufunza (exponent) c) Akafunza (power of number ) d) Entobo, ekikolo, enfunzo the base e) Okufundiza namba (to power a number)

In the exponent nm (Mu mufunza nm), “n” is the “entobo” or ekikolo” also called “enfunzo” (base) and m is akafunza (the power). The entire concept or topic is known as “mufunza”(exponentiation) whose meaning is a result of semantic extension of the ordinary meaning of the word “mufunza”(short form, tightening). If you are given 2 x 2x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2. This can be indicated in short form as 28. In Luganda this may be called “okufunza”.