Omweso gw'Endagakintu (The Chemical table of elements)

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Gakuweebwa Charles Muwanga !!! Omweso gw'endagakintu ez'enkyusabuzuba(Chemical table of elements) .Fakikya ku Essomabuziba(Facts on Chemistry)

Omweso gw'endagakintu era osobola okuguyita Taabulo ya erementi. Omweso gw'endagakintu mu lungereza gweguyitibwa “Periodic table “. Etteeka ly'endagakintu(the law of chemical elements) ligamba nti ebinnyonnyozo by'enkyusabuziba(chemical properties) eby'endagakintu bisinziira ku bungi bwa buziba oba ka tugambe ku namba ya buziba ( atomic numbers).

Endagakintu mu mweso ogw’emigalamiro ( the periodic table) zisengekebwa mu migalamiro( rows or periods) n’ebibinja by’ obusimbalaala(Groups of columns) . Buli gumu ku misengeko omusanvu gujjuzibbwaamu omuwendo gw'obuziba oba namba y'obuziba(atomic number) mu kundingana. Ebibinja ebiri mu busimbalaala birimu endagakintu ezirina ensengeka(configuration) y’emu mu kisosonkole eky’ebweeru(outer shell), ekiviirako endagakintu eziri mu bibinja bino okuba nga zirina ebinnyonnyozo b'enkyusabuziba(chemical properties) bye bimu.

Obusannyalazo( electrons) mu kisosonkole eky’ebweeru w'obuziizi buyitibwa busannyalazo obw'ekiyayaano(valence electrons). Obusannyalazo obw'ekiyayaano (Valence electrons) bwe bulaga enkula n’ekikyusabuziba(chemical reactivity) eky'endagakintu era bwenyigira mu nkwasowazo ez'ekikyusabuziba(chemical bonding). Namba ez’ekirooma eziri waggulu wa buli kibinja ziraga namba y’obusannyalazo bw'ekiyayaano(valence electrons).


Mu somo ly'ebyobuziba(Chemistry), waliwo fakikya mwenda z’olina okusooka okumanya:

(i) Nti ebyobuziba oba essomabuziba ly’essomo lya nabuzimbe(matter) n’amasoboza awamu n’enkolagana wakati wa bino ebibiri. Ebyobuziba sayansi wa nsibo akwatagana ennyo n’essomabuzimbe(Physics) era nga kumpi amasomo gano gombi gatera okusonjolwa mu ngeri emu.


(ii) Nti buli nzitoyo ekolebwa erementi za kemiko, ezawulibwa buli emu okuva ku ndala okusinziira ku muwendo gwa konta (protons) ezizirimu.


(iii) Endagakintu ez'ekikyusabuziba(Chemical elements) zisengekeddwa mu nziring’ana y"Omuwendo ky'akaziba" oba kiyite "namba y'akaziba"(atomic number) ogudda waggulu mu "omumweso gw'endagakintu"(table of chemical elements). Endagakintu(element) esooka mu mweso guno ye ayidologyeni oba kitondekamazzi (hydrogen).


(iv) Buli ndagakintu mu mwesoeba n’obubonero bw’ennyukuta kamu oba bubiri. (v) Ku tempulikya ey’ekigero (At room temperature) waliwo erementi za kakulukusi bbiri zokka, bbolomayini (bromine) ne makyule (mercury).


(vi) Erinnya lya essomabuziizi obw’amazzi(The chemistry of water), H2O, ye bbiri-ayidologyeni-emu-okisayidi (dihydro-gen monoxide).


(vii) Endagakintu ezisinga obungi biba byuma oba kiyite meto (metals) ate era ebyuma ebisinga obungi bya siriva oba kivuvuvu (grey) Meto zokka ezitali za siriva ziri zaabu ne kkopa.


(viii) Omuntu azuula endagakintu y’atera okugiwa erinnya.


(ix) Kyokka waliwo endagakintu ezibbulwa mu Bantu nga Mendereviyamu oba Eyensiteniyamu), ezibbulwa mu bifo nga Kalifoniyamu ne Amerikamu, n’ezo ezibbulwa mu bintu ebirala.


(x) Yadde nga oyinza okubalira zaabu mu erementi ezebbaliririrwa (rare) ekituufu kiri nti zaabu ali mu magombe g’ensi mungi ekimala.


"Ebyuma n’ebitali byuma"


Njawulo ki eri wakati w’ebyuma n’ebitali byuma

Endagakintu zawulibwamu ebyuma (metals) n’ebitali byuma (nonmetals), okusinziira ku bisonjozo byazo. Ka tutunuulire enjawulo wakati w’ebyuma n’ezitali byuma:

"Ebyuma"

Endagakintu ezisinga za kyuma. Mu mweso ge'endagakintu, ebyuma byawulibwa ku bitali byuma ne layini eya zigizzaaga eyita mu erementi eya kaboni, Fosiferaasi, sereniyaamu, ayodiini ne ladoni. Erementi zino n’ezo eziri ku ddyo wazo z’ezo ezitali byuma ate erementi eziddirira ku kkono wa layini ziyitibwa byuma ebya kibogwe (metalloids or semimetals) era ebisonjozo byazo biri wakati w’ebisonjozo eby’ekyuuma n’ekitali kyuuma. Ebisonjozo eby’okungulu n’eby’obuziba ebya ebyuma n’ebitali byuma bye byeyambisibwa okuzaawula.

Ebisonzojo ebyo ku ngulu eby’Ekyuma (Metal Physical Properties):

• Okunyereketa (shiny)

• Birandizo by’ebbugumu n’amasannyalaze ebirungi

• Bisanuukira ku tempulikya ya waggulu nnyo (high melting point)

• Bikwafuwavu nnyo (high density) nga obigerageranyizza n’ekigero kyabyo.

• Bisobola okunyigirizibwa okubiteeka mu nkula yonna (malleable)

• Bisobola okukolebwamu waya (are ductile )

• Biba bya nkalubo ku tempulikya eza bulijjo okujjako makyule.

• Za kitangazziba (opaque), ekitegeeza biziba ekkubo ly’ekitangaala era ekitangaala tekibiyitamu.

• Bivuga nga ekide (are sonorous ) nga bikubiddwako


Ebisonjozo eby’obuziba obw’ekyuma (Metal Chemical Properties)


• Ebyuma biba n’obusannyalazo 1-3 mu kisosonkole oba ekire ekyebulunguludde nnyukiriasi y atomu ey’ekyuma.

• Ebyuma bifuma (corrode) mangu nga mu ngeri y’okuvunda okuva ku kutomeggana kwa ekitondekamazzi ne okisigeni.

• Ziviibwako mangu obusannyalazo(electrons)


Ebisonjozo ebyo ku ngulu ebya ndagakintu ezitali Kyuma


• Tezimyansamyansa oba tezimasamasa.

• Tezirandiza bulungi bbugumu oba amasannyalaze.

• Nkalubo ezitasobola kukolebwamu waya (nonductile solids).

• Nkalubo ezsesebbuka oba okwatika amangu.

• Ziyinza okuba enkalubo, kakulukusi oba ggaasi ku temmpulikya eya bulijjo.

• Za kitangayisa nga olupapula.

• Tebivuga nga kide (are not sonorious).


Ebisonjozo eby’obuziba obwa ndagakintu etali kyuma

• Etera okuba n’obusannyalaza 4-8 mu kire ekyebulungudde nnyukiriyasi. Erementi ezitali za kyuma mulimu:

• Kitondekamazzi/Ayidologyeni (Hydrogen)

• Kaboni(Carbon)

• Nayitologyeni

• Okisigyeni(Oxygen)

• Fosiferaasi(Phosphorus)

• Salufa (Sulphur)

• Sereniyaamu (Selenium)


Omweso gwa Endagakintu(Chemical Table)


Ekipande kya endagakintu oyinza okukiyita Omweso gwa Endagakintu, Taabulo ya Endagakintu oba Mweso gwa Mandeevu. Nze ku lwange njagadde taabulo oba ekipande kino nkiyite mweso aboogezi b’oluganda gwe basinga okutegeera.

Omweso gwa endagakintu kiba kipande (chart) ekisengeka endagakintu zonna eziriwo mu butonde kyokka mu myaka mitono egiyise taabulo eno eyongeddwako endagakintu entono ezikoleddwa omuntu nga pulatinaamu.

Bw’oba wakakuba eriiso ku taabulo eno awatali kweroboza olaba ey’ekintabuli naye ensengeka yayo si ya kintabuli n’akatono kubanga buli musimbalaala ogwesimbye gubaamu enziringana ya erementi ezirina ebinnyonnyozo bye bimu. Ku ddyo asemberayo ddala ogw’omweso gwa erementi guno we wasangibwa erementi litiya (lithium), sodiya (sodium), potasiya (potassium), lubidiya (rubidium), Kyesiya (Caesium) ne fulankiya (francium). Zino ze endagakintu ez’olunnyo (alikali elements).

Okusinziira ku Dimitiri Mandeevu, singa erementi zonna ziba zisengekeddwa mu nziring’ana ey’obuzito bwazo, enzirng’ana ey’omugalamiro ey’ebinnyonnyozo yeyoreka. Kino kyalagibwa mu Etteeka ly’obugalamivu (law of periodicity)” okusinziira ku Dimitiri Mandeevu.

Mu butuufu oluvannyuma kyakakasibwa nti mu atomu mulimu ekibalo ekidda waggulu okuyita mu mitendera emigereke buli oli lw’ava ku ndagakintu emu okudda ku ndala.Ekibalo kino kisibuka mu kyagi eya nyukiriyasi esangibwa mu makkati ga atomu.

Essomabuziba bw'akaziba(atom) kisinziira ku muwendo gwa busannyalazo nga guno guba gwenkanankana ne konta era kino kiyitibwa omuwendo gw'akaziba oba namba y;akaziba(atomic number).

Okusobola okwesa omweso gw'obuziba obulungi olina okusooka okunnyonnyoka obuzimbe bw’omweso guno. Mu mweso gw'obiziba mulimu emigalamiro (rows) n’emisimbalaala (columns). Emigalamiro n’emisimbalaala mu mweso gwa endagakintu giraga ki ?


Okusobola okwesa omweso gw'endagakintu obulungi olina okusooka okumanya nti “obusimba”(vertical/column) bulaga “kibinja”(group) ate obugalamivu(raws) bulaga migaramiro(periods).

Emisimbalaala emyesimbu (vertical columns) giraga erementi ezirina ebisonjozo bye bimu kubanga ziba n’omuwendo gw’obusannyalaza bwe bumu mu kisosonkole kyazo ekyo ku ngulu. Omuwendo gw’obusannyalaza mu kisosonkole ekyo kungulu gwe gusinga okuvaako engeri endagakintu gy’eva mu mbeera n’ekyusa obuziba bwayo ng'ekwataganye n'endagakintu endala .

Emigaramiro emigalamivu(horizontal rows, periods) si kikulu nnyo. Obuzito oba ekigero kya erementi (kubanga omuwendo gwa konta ekitegeeza n’obusannyalaza) gweyongera buli lw’odda ku ddyo ne wansi.


Emiyitiro gy’obusannyalazo, Ebyebulungulo n’Ebyebulungo (Orbitals and orbits)

Emiyitiro gy’obusannyalazo n’ebyebulungulo kintu kye kimu?

Ky’olina okusooka okumanya kwe kuba nti mu atomu, obusannyalazo (electrons) buba ne kyagi eya negatiivu ate nga busangibwa mu miyitiro gya busannyalaza (obwetoloola buli atomu. Emiyitiro gy’obusannyalazo (erectron shells) n’ebyebulungulo (orbitals) byekuusiza ku kintu kye kimu. Okutwalira awamu zino nziringana za mitendera gya (series of energy levels) okwetoloola nnyukiriyasi y'obuziba.


Ekyebulungulo ky’obusannyalazo kye kimu n’omutendera gw’amasoboza (energy level)?

Buli kyebulungulo ekiri mu muyitiro (shell, medium) kirina enkula ey’enjawulo ate nga kiragibwa n’ennyukuta nga s, p. Tewali byebulungulo bibiri birina mutendera gw’amasoboza gwe gumu Omuyitiro gw’akasannyalazo (electron shell) mwe musangibwa ekyebulungulo.

Ebyebulungulo (the orbitals) bisengekeddwa mu miyitiro (shells) n’obuyitiro (subshells), ate emitendera gy’amasoboza gye gimu  okujjako nti mu bibiina ebya waggulu emiyitiro (shells) giyitibwa bire bya busannyalaza(electron clouds), kyokka byombi bitegeeza kye kimu. 

Enkulungo bwe yetoloola enjuba yayo, ekkubo lyayo ery’enkomeredde eriyitibwa ekyebulungo (orbit) liyinza okutonnyezebwa (to plot). Ne atomu tuyinza okugiraga mu ngeri y’emu ng’obusannyalaza obwebulunga okwetoloola nnyukiriyaasi.


Kyokka ekituufu tekiba ekyo kubanga obusannyalazo mu butuufu busajjaalaatira (to inhibit) mu bibangirizo (regions of space) ebiyitibwa ‘ebibulungo” (ebyebulungo (orbitals). Ebibulungo n’ebyebulungulo (Orbits and orbitals) biwulikika nga ebifaanagavu kyokka birina amakulu ga njawulo ddala.

Endagakintu zonna mu migaramiro (periods, raws) zirina omuwendo gw’ebyebulungulo eby’obusannyalazo (erectronic/atomic orbitals) gwe gumu. Buli endagakintu mu mugalamiro ogusooka waggulu (first raw/period) erina ekyebulungulo kimu eky’obusannyalazo (erakitooni) bwakyo. Ate endagakintu zonna mu mugalamiro ogw’okubiri (second period, raw) zirina ebyebulungulo bibiri eby’obusannyalazo bwazo. Kino kigenda bwe kityo okudda wansi mu taabulo.

Emisimbalaala emyesimbu (vertical columns_ biba bibinja. Endagakintu ezibeera mu kibinja ziba n’omuwendo gw’obusannyalazo bwe bumu mu byebulungulo byabwo. (Ekitegeeza nti ziba ne kyagi y’emu). Buli endagakintu mu musimbalaala ogusooka (ekibinja ekisooka) erina akasannyalazo kamu mu muyitiro gwayo oqwo ku ngulu.

Bino wansi bye bibinja bya endagakintu (mu misimbalaala):


• Ebyuma ebya ebisebengerevu (alkali metals).

• Evyuma ebyo mu ttaka ebisebengerevu (alkaline earth metals)

• Ebyuma biri mu mugendo (transit metals)

• Ebyuma ebirala (other metals)

• Ebitali byuma (Non-metals)

• Halogens• Ggaasi entebenkevu (noble gases)

• Erementi ez’omu ttaka ezitalabikalabika (rare earth Metals).


Ebinnyonnyozo bya buli ndagakintu:

Mu mweso gwa erementi buli erementi ennyonnyolebwa ba bino:


(a) Erinnya: ekyokulabirako: Litiya

(b) Akabonero: Li

(c) Namba ya atomu:: 3

(d) Enzitoya ya atomu: 6.941 amu

(e) Entikko y’okumerenguka: 180.54 °C (453.69 K, 356.972 °F)

(f) Entikko y’okwesera: 1347.0 °C (1620.15 K, 2456.6 °F)

(g) Namba ya Konta/Obusannyalazo: 3

(h) Namba ya nampa: 4

(i) Ekiti mw’egwa: Kyuma eky’olunnyonnyo (Alkali Metal )

(j) Obuzimbe bwa muweke: Kyesatuza (cubic)

(k) Obukwafuwavu @ 293 K: 0.53 g/sm3

(l) Kkala: siriva Omweso gwa erementi guyinza okulagibwa mu taabulo okulaga: Manya: Laba omweso gw'endagakintu ewasembayo.

Ky’olina okumanya kwe kuba nti obubonero bwa erementi obw’oluganda okufaanana n’obwolungereza bwonna tubwewoze okuva mu lulattini n’olugereeki (oluyonaani) kubangaensibuko z’amannya ago ezisinga obungi ziva mu nnimi ezo ebbiri.


Mu ngeri y’emu amannya ga erementi agasinga obunji oluganda lugewoze mu lungereza era ka tugambe mu lulattini na lugereeki ne tugawa enjatula n’empandiika ey’oluganda. Erementi bbiri zokka ezibadde n’amannya mu luganda, zzaabu (gold) ne “kkalwe” (iron) ze zitewoleddwa mu mweso gw’oluganda kyokka obubonero bwazo okufaanana n’obulala bwonna tubwewoze era akabonero ka kkalwe kali “Fe” akava mu ky’olulattini “ferrum” n’akabonero ga Zzaabu “Au”.

Ebibuuzo

1. Endagakintu zino ziri mu kibinja ki? a. Fe b. Sulufa c. Ayodiini d. Ca

2. Endagakintu zino ziri mu mugalamiro (period, raw) ki? a. Rb b. Ge c. He d. I

3. Omugalamiro kye ki?

4. Wandiika obubonero bw'endagakintu zino: a) Kkalwe b) Zzaabu c) Maginezia d) Potasiya


Endagakintu Akabonero Namba y'Akaziba Namba ya Konta Namba y’obusannyalazo Enzitoya ya akaziba Ebibinja Omugalamiro Emitendera gy’amasoboza

Okisigyeni

Keriya

Kaboni

Aluminiya

Kalisiyamu

Sodiyamu

Potasiyamu

Nayitologyeni

Sirikoni

Kkalwe


Kitondekamazzi

Dimiti Mandeevu (Dmitri Mendeleev) yafulumya omweso gw'endagakintu ogwasooka mu 1869. Yalaga nti singa endagakintu zisengekebwa okusinziira ku buzito bw'akaziba (atomic weight), kivaamu omusengeko (pattern) nga ebinnyonnyozo by'endagakintu bidding’ana mu bugalamivu (periodically).

Kyokka okusinziira ku kunoonyereza kwa munnassomabutonde Henry Moseley, kyakakasibwa nti omweso gw'endagakintu yesigamye ku namba ya atomu edda waggulu (increasing atomic number) so si ku buzito bwa atomu. Omweso oba Taabulo eno eyalimu ennongoosereza yali esobola okukozesebwa okulagula ebinnyonnyozo bya erementi eezitannaba kuvumbulwa.

Endagakintu mu mweso gw’Emigaramiro zisengekeddwa mu migaramiro (raws) n’ebibinja (groups. Buli gumu ku migaramiro omusanvu ejjuzidwamu mu nzering’ana ne namba ya atomu (atomic number).

Ebibinja birimu erementi ezirina obusengeke bw’obusannyalaza bwe bumu (same electron configuration) mu kire oba ekisosonkole ekyo kungulu, ekiviirako erementi eziri mu kibinja okuba nga birina ebinnyonnyozo bya kemiko ebigwa mu kiti ekimu.

Obusannyalaza mu kisosonkole eky’o kungulu buyitibwa busanyalaza bwa valansi (valence electrons). Obusannyalaza obwa valansi bwe busalawo ku binnyonnyozo n’entomaggana eya kemiko eya erementi era bwenyigira mu nkwaso ez'enkyusabuziba (chemical bonding).

Nambiso z’ekirooma(Roman numerals) ezisangibwa waggulu wa buli kibinja ziraga namba y’obusannyalaza obwa valaensi eya bulijjo.


Amannya ga endagakintu mu luganda, olungereza n’ensibuko ey’olulattini Zino ze endagakintu ez’Oluganda ezaava mu Lulattini:

• Aluminamu (aluminum) (akabonero Al kava mu kya lulattini alumen)

• Antimoniya (antimony) (akabonero Sb kava mu ky’olulattini stibium)

• Bereriyamu(beryllilium) (akabonero Be kava mu ky’olulattini Beryllus)

• Bisemuusi (bismuth) (akabonero Bi kava mu ky’olulattini bisemutum)

• Bboroni (boron) (akabonero B kava mu ky’olulattini Baurach ekiva mu kya Buperusi Borax)) • Kadimiyaamu(cadmium ) (akabonero Cd kava mu ky’olulattini Cadmus)

• Seziyamu (caesium) (akabonero Cs kava mu ky’olulattini Caesius)

• Kalisiyaamu (calcium) (akabonero Ca kava mu ky’olulattini calx)

• Kaboni (carbon) (akabonero C kava mu ky’olulattini carbo)

• Seriyaamu (cerium) (akabonero Ce kava mu ky’olulattini ceres)

• Kkopa (copper ) (akabonero Cu kava mu k’olulattini cuprum)

• Kopenisiyaamu(copernicium) (akabonero Cn kava mu linnya ly’olulattini Copernicus)

• Zaabu (gold ) (akabonero Au kava mu ky’olulattini aurum)

• Yindiyamu (indium ) (akabonero In kava mu ky’olulattini indigo)

• Kkalwe(iron) (akabonero Fe kava mu ky’olulattini ferrum)

• Fuloliini (fluorine) (akabonero F kava mu ky’olulattini Fluor)

• Galiyamu (gallium ) (akabonero Ga kava mu ky’olulattini Gallia)

• Jemaniyamu (germanium (akabonero Ge kava mu ky’olulattini Germania)

• Kafuniyamu (hafnium) (akabonero Hf kva mu ky’olulattini Hafnia)

• Kasiyamu (hassium) (akabonero Hs kava mu ky’olulattini Hassia)

• Kolumiyamu(holmium) (akabonero Ho kava mu ky’olulattini Holmia)

• Pulambiyamu (lead) (akabonero Pb kava mu ky’olulattini plumbum)

• Lutetiyamu (lutetium) (akabonero Lu kava mu ky’olulattini Lutetia)

• Manganeezi (manganese) (akabonero Mn kava mu ky’olulattini Magnetum) • Makyule (mercury) (akabonero Hg kava mu ky’olulattini hydragyrum (okuva mu kirala Mercurius))

• Neputuniyaamu(neptunium) (akabonero Np kava mu ky’olulattini Neptunus)

• Najeni(nitrogen) (akabonero N kava mu kya lulattini nitrum-genes)

• Osimiyaamu(osmium) (akabonero Os kava mu kya lulattini osme)

• Paladiyaamu (Palladium) (Akabonero kaba Pd. KIva mu kya lulattini Pallus)

• Fosiferaasi(phosphorous )(akabonero P kava mu kya lulattini phos-phoros)

• Pulatinaamu(platinum) (akabonero Pt kava mu kya lulattini platina)

• Pulatoniyaamu (plutonium) (akabonero kaba Pu. Kino kiva mu kya lulattini Pluto)

• Poloniyaamu (polonium) (akabonero kaba Po .Kino kiva mu kya lulattini Polonia)

• Potasiyaamu (potassium) (akabonero K kava mu kya lulattini kalium (nakyo ekibbulwa mu potassa)) • Ladiyaamu (radium) (akabonero Rakava mu kya lulattini radius)

• Ladoni (radon)(akabonero Rn kava mu kya lulattini radium)

• Lekemiyaamu (rhenium) (akabonero Re kava mu kya lulattini Rhenus)

• Lubidiyaamu (rubidium)(akabonero Rb kava mu kya lulattini rubidus)

• Luseniyaamu (ruthenium) (akabonero Ru kava mu kya lulattini Ruthenia)

• Sikandiyaamu (scandium) (akabonero Sc kava mu kya lulattini Scandia)

• Sirikooni (silicon) (akabonero s kava mu kya lulattini silicis)

• Siriva (silver) (akabonero Ag kava mu kya lulattini argentum)

• Sodiyamu (sodium) (akabonero Na kava mu kya lulattini natrium)

• Salufa (sulphur) (akabonero S kava mu kya lulattini sulfra)

• Teruniyaamu (tellurium) (akabonero T kava mu kya lulattiini tellus)

• Ttiini (Tin )(akabonero Sn kava mu kya lulattini stannum)

• Tangasiteeni (tungsten) (akabonero W kava mu kya lulattini wolfram)

• Yulaniyaamu (uranium) (akabonero U kava mu kya lulattini uranus)


Akitinaamu

• Akabonero: Ac • Namba y'akaziba: 89 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki aktinos (ray , omugendo )

Aluminiyaamu

• Akabonero: Al • Namba y'akaziba: 13 • Kiva mu kya Lulattini alumen, oba"ekikaawa ennyo ".

Antimoni

• Akabonero: Sb • Namba y'akaziba: 51 • Kiva mu kya kugereeki anti anti (ekiraga okuwakanya ) ne monos (ekitali kyokka)

Arigoni

• Akabonero : Ar • Namba y'akaziba: 18 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki argon (ekyebafu)

Ariseniki

• Akabonero: As • Namba ya atomu : 33 • Kiva mu kya lulattini arsenicum, ekitegeeza g "ekya kyenvu ".

Asitatayini

• Akabonero l: At • Namba y'akaziba: 85 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki astatos (unstable)

Bariyamu (Barium)

• Akabonero : Ba • Namba y'akaziba: 56 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki barys (heavy)

Bulomayini (Bromine)

• Akabonero : Br • Namba y'akaziba: 35 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki brômos (stench)

Kadiyamu (Cadmium)

• Akabonero : Cd • Namba y'akaziba : 48 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki word kadmeia (erinnya eryedda calamine) n’ekigambo ky’olulattini cadmia.Cadmus, mu kugereesa kw’abagereeki, yatandikawo Thebes.


Kalisiyamu (Calcium)

• Akabonero: Ca • Namba y'akaziba : 20 • Okuva mu ky’olulattini calcis (lime)


Kaboni (Carbon)

• akabonero: C • namba y'akaziba : 6 • kiva mu kya lulattini carbo (coal)

Seriyamu (Cerium)

• akabonero: Ce • namba y'akaziba: 58 • Kiva mu kya lulattini Ceres (asteroid), ekiva mu ky’olulooma Demeter, lubaale omukyala ow’ebyobulimi n’obulunzi.


Sesiyaamu (Cesium)

• akabonero : Cs • namba y'akaziba : 55 • kiva mu kya lulattini wordcaesius (bbululu nga ow’olubaale)

Kiloliini (Chlorine)

• akabonero : Cl • namba y'akaziba: 17 • kiva mu kya lugereeki khlôros (kiragala)

Kiromiyamu (Chromium)

• akabonero: Cr • namba y'akaziba : 24 • kiva mu kya lugereeki chrôma (kkala)

Kkopa (Copper)

• akabonero : Cu • namba y'akaziba: 29 • Kiva mu kya lulattini cyprium, ekyabbulawa mu kizinga Cyprus awaazaalibwa Aphrodite.


Dipulosiyamu (Dysprosium)

• akabonero : Dy • namba y'akaziba : 66 • Kiva mu kya lulattini dysprositos (ekitegeeza “kizibu okutuukako”).

Fuloliini (Fluorine)

• akabonero: F • namba y'akaziba : 9 • kiva mu kya lulattini fluo (okukulukuta )

Zzaabu (Gold)

• akabonero : Au • namba y'akaziba: 79 • Kiva mu kya lulattini aurum (zaabu). Mu kigereeso ky’abalooma, Aurora yali lubaali w’obudde obuwungeera (dawn)—nga olubaale lultunul nga kkala ya zaabu.

Keliyuumu (Helium)

• akabonero : He • namba y'akaziba : 2 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki hêlios (enjuba); Helios mu kigereeso ky’abagereeki kitegeeza lubaale w’enjuba.

Ayidologyeni / Kitondekamazzi (Hydrogen)

• akabonero : H • namba ya atomu: 1 • Kiva mu bigambo bya lugereeki hudôr (ekitegeeza amazzi) ne gennan (okutondeka, to generate).

Ayodiini (Iodine)

• akabonero: I • namba ya atomu: 53 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki iôdes (kkala ya violet).

Yirediyuamu (Iridium)

• akabonero : Ir • namba y'akaziba : 77 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki iridis (ekitegeeza ekkamiso, rainbow). Lubaale w’abagereeki omukazi, Iris, yayambalanga akakofiira aka kkala ez’enjawulo.

Kkalwe (Iron)

• akabonero : Fe • namba y'akaziba: 26 • Kiva mu kya lulattini ferrum (iron)

Keripitooni (Krypton)

• akabonero : Kr • namba y'akaziba : 36 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki kryptos (ekitegeeze “kyekweese). Mu lungereza olwa kati ebigambo nga "encrypt" bijjibwa mu lugereeki

Lantanaamu (Lanthanum)

• akabonero: La • namba y'akaziba : 57 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki lanthaneis (okubeera mu mbeera ey’okwekweka).

Nkulembero (Lead)

• akabonero : Pb • namba y'akaziba : 82 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki protos (okukulembera oba okusooka). Abagereeki abamu baalowooza nti lubaale eyasooka bonna ye yali Protogonus, oba "omuggulanda". • Akabonero Pb kava mu kya lulattini plumbum (ekisooka)

Litetiyaamu (Lithium)

• Akabonero : Li • Namba y'akaziba : 3 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki lithos (ejjinja)


Manganeeze (Manganese)

• Akabonero : Mn • Namba y'akaziba : 25 • Kiva mu kya lulattini mangnes (magineeti)

Molibodinaamu (Molybdenum)

• Akabonero : Mo • Namba y'akaziba : 42 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki molubdos (Ekisooka , lead)

Niyodemiyaamu (Neodymium)

• Akabonero : Nd • Namba y'akaziba: 60 • Kiva mu bya lugereeki neos (ekipya) ne didymos (ebirongo). Abalongo bali nnyo mu kigereeso ky’ekigereeki, okuva ku Dioscuri (Castor & Polydeuces) okutuuka ku balongo ab’ebutonda (Artemis & Apollo).

Niyoni (Neon)

• Akabonero : Ne • Namba y'akaziba : 10 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki neos (ekipya)

Neputuniyamu (Neptunium)

• Akabonero : Np • Nmba ya atomu: 93 • Kibbulwa mu lubaale w’abalooma Neptune, lubaale w’ennyanja, abagereeki gwe bayita Poseidon mu kigereeso kyabwe.


Niyobiyamu (Niobium)

• Akabonero : Nb • namba y'akaziba: 41 • Kiva mu Niobe, muwala wa kabaka ow’kigereeso (Tantalus). Yakudaalira Leto nti ye alina abaana babiri bokka okugerageranya n’abalenzi be musanvu n’abawala be musanvu. Apollo ne Artemis kwe kutta omwana we. Niobe, nga takyetegeera, yafuusibwa balubaale olwazi.


Osimiyamu (Osmium)

• Akabonero : Os • Namba y'akaziba : 76 • Kiva mu ky’olugereeki osmë (olusu)

Okisijeni (Oxygen)

• Symbol: O • Namba y'akaziba : 8 • Kiva mu bigambo bya lugereeki oxus (asidi) ne gennan (okutondeka , generate)

Paladiyaamu (Palladium)

• Akabonero : Pd • Namba y'akaziba : 46 • Kiva mu lubaale omukazi ow’abagereeki (Pallas).

Fosifolasi (Phosphorous)

• Akabonero : P • Namba ya atomu : 15 • Kiva mu bigambo by’olugereeki phôs (ekitangaala) ne phoros (omuzaazi), Phosphoros yali lubaale w’ekitangaala mu kigereeso ky’abagereeki


Pulatoniyamu (Plutonium)

• Akabonero : Pu • Namba y'akaziba : 94 • Kiva mu nkulungo y’enjuba Muwanga Pluto (nakayima) ne lubaale w’abalattini ow’emagombe.

Potasiyamu (Potassium)

• Akabonero : K • Namba y'akaziba: 19 • Ensibuko y’erinnya potash - lumondo • Ensibuko y’akabonerp eri mu kya lulattini kalium

Poresediyaamu (Praseodymium)

• Akabonero : Pr • Namba y'akaziba : 59 • Kiva mu bya lugereeki prasios (kiragala ) ne didymos (birongo )

Peremesiyamu (Promethium)

• Akabonero : Pm • Namba y'akaziba : 61 • Okuva mu Titan Prometheus eyabbaomuliro gw’ekikaayo n’aguwa omusajja.

Peretasitiniyamu (Protactinium)

• Akabonero : Pa • Namba ya atomu : 91 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki protos (ekisooka) [kyaava mu kisooka (lead)].

Ladiyamu (Radium)

• Akabonero : Ra • Namba y'akaziba : 88 • Kiva mu kya lulattini radius (, omugendo ray)

Lodiyamu (Rhodium)

• Akabonero : Rh • Namba y'akaziba : 45 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki rhodon (ekimuli kya looza ) Lubidiyamu (Rubidium)

• Akabonero : Rb • Namba y'akaziba : 37 • Kiva mu kya lulattini rubidus (kasaayi, myufu )

Luteniyamu (Ruthenium)

• akabonero: Ru • namba y'akaziba: 44 • kiva mu kya lulattini Ruthenia (Russia)

Sereniyamu (Selenium)

• akabonero : Se • nmba y'akaziba : 34 • kiv mu kya lugereki Selênê, lubale w’omwezi

Sodiyamu (Sodium)

• akabonero : Na • namba y'akaziba : 11 • kiva mu soda (Na2CO3) • akabonero kava mu kya lulattini natrium (sodium)

Sirikooni (Silicon)

• akabonero : Si • namba y'akaziba : 14 • kiva mu kya lulattini silex (flint)

Salufa (Sulphur)

• akabonero S • namba y'akaziba : 16 • kiva mu kya lulattini sulfur (brimstone)


Tantulamu (Tantalum)

• akabonero : Ta • namba y'akaziba : 73 • Kibbulwa mu kabaka Tantalus, mutabani wa Zeus.

Tekinetiyamu (Technetium) • akabonero : Tc • Namba y'akaziba : 43 • Kiv mu kya lugereeki technêtos (artificial)

Teruniyamu (Tellurium)

• Akabonero : Te • Namba y'akaziba : 52 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki tellus (Ensi , Ettaka)

Taliyaamu (Thallium)

• Akabonero : Tl • Namba y'akaziba : 81 • Kiv mu kya lugereeki thallos (young shoot)

Ttiini (Tin)

• Akabonero : Sn • Namba y'akaziba : 50 • Kiva mu kya lulattini vstannum (tin)

Titaniyamu (Titanium)

• Akabonero : Ti • Namba y'akaziba : 22 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki titanos (Titans). Ba Titans be balubaale abaasookawo nga ba Olympians tebannabaawo.

Yulaniyamu (Uranium)

• Akabnero : U • Namba y'akaziba : 92 • Kiva mu nkulungo ya njuba muwanga Uranus, eyali katonda w’ekikaayi (olubaale)

Ekiseneno (Xenon)

• akabonero: Xe • Namba y'akaziba : 54 • Kiva mu kya lugereeki xeno

Ekibuuzo: Erementi ki ejja akabonero kayo okuva mu erementi y’olulattini aurum, ekitegeeza okusanana (okumasamasa)?

Aluminiya
Amerikamu
Zzaabu
Siriva

Ekibuuzo: Erementi ki eraga ekipooli ky’ebiramu (organic compound)?

Okisijeni
Kaboni
Ayidologyeni / Kitondekamazzi
Nayitogyeni