Akataffaali

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Akataffaali (living cell).


Obutaffaali obuzimba ekiramu (cells), kitegeeza obutaffaali obuzimba buli kiramu, omuli ensolo n’ebimera. Obutaffaali buno bwe bukola obuzimbe bw’omubiri, ne buyingiza ebiriisa (nutrients) mu mubiri okuva mu mmere, ne bukyuusa ebiriisa bino, okubifuula amasoboza (energy), era ne bukola emirimu gy’omubiri egy’enjawulo.

Obutaffaali bulina ebitundu bya njawulo nga buli kitundu kirina omulimu gwakyo egw’enjawulo. Ebitundu by’akataffaali bino biyitibwa “olugaanire” (organelles). Buli kataffaali kaliko ebitundu (olugaanire) bino:

(i) Katopulaazi.Katopulaazi luba luzzizzi (fluid) munda mw’akataffaali oluba lwetoolodde olugaanile (ebitundu by’akataffaali).

(ii) Endopulaazi letikyula

Endopulaazi letikyula (endoplasme reticulum), ky’ekitundu ky’akataffaali ekiyamba okufulumya molekyu ne kizisindika mu bitundu eby’enjawulo munda oba wabwelu w’akataffaali.

(iii) Bbulogi

Bbulogi (Bolgi apparatus) ky’ekisengeka molekyu ezifulumizibwa “endopulaazi letikyula” okuzisobozesa okufulumizibwa wabweeru w’akataffaali.

(iv) Lisosamu ne perekiso

Lyasosomu ne perekiso (lysosomes and peroxisomes) bitundu bya kataffaali ebizza obujja akataffaali nga bikola ku bakitilia eziba zikalumbye ela ne zijjamu obutwa (toxic substances) ela ne zizza obujja ebitundu by’akataffaali ebivudde ku mpagala.

(v) Mitokyandira

Mitokyandila (mitochondria) ziba oligaanile ez’enjawulo ezijja amaanyikasoboza (energy) munda okugateeka mu mbeela akataffaali gye kasobola okukozesa. Mitokyandira zirina sabusitansi z’oluzode (genetic material) ezaazo ku bwazo, ezeyawudde ku DNA eri mu buziizi era ziyinza okweyubula ku bwazo.

(vi) Obuziizi(nucleus)

Obuziizi (nucleus) y’ekola nga ekifundikwa ky’ebilagilo by’akataffaalikazimbamubili, n’eweeleza ebilagilo ebikuza akataffaali, okweyabuluzaamu oba okufa. Obuziizi era y’ennyumba ya DNA, eddoboozi ly’ebiragilo ly’enkola n’enkula y’omubiri gw’ekiramu, omuli obutereke (gene). Obuziizi yebulunguddwa akabubi (membrane) akayitibwa “akabaasa ka obuziizi” (nuclear envelope), akakuuma DNA era ne kaawula obuziizi n’ebitundu by’akataffaali ebirala.

(vii) Olububi lwa Pulaazima

Olububi lwa pulaazima (plasma membrane) lwe lubikkiridde ku ngulu kwa akataffaalikazimbamubili ku ngulu. Lwawula akataffaali n’ebitundu ebiddako era ne lukkiliza ebiriisa okuyingira n’okufuluma akataffaali.

(viii)Libosoomu

Libosomu (ribosomes) ziba olugaanire(bitundu bya kataffaali) ebisobola okuseyeeya ekyeere mu katopulaazi (cytoplasm) oba ne byegatta ku endopulaazi letikyula.