Obulamu obusirikitu (Micro organisms)

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"Obulamu obusirikitu" (Microorganisms)

Obulamu obusingayo okuba obusirikitu (Microbes).

Munnassomabulamu obusirikitu (Microbiologist) ye kakensa eyakuguga mu bulamu obusirikitu (microbes oba microorganisms). Obulamu obusirikitu bwe bulamu obusingayo okuba obusirikitu era nga bwe busingayo okuba n’obuzimbe obwangu. Obumu ku bulamu buno nga vayiraasi, bubuusibwabuusibwa oba nga ddala bubalibwa mu biramu nga bwe bisonjolwa.

Obulamu obusirikitu (microbe) kye ki?

Obulamu obusirikito bwe butonde obulina obulamu nga busirikitu nnyo okuba nti bwetaaka enzimbulukusa (microscope) okubulaba n’eriiso lyo. Obulamu buno bwa bika bingi ddala era nga obumu bubeera bwokka ate obulala mu bibinja (colonies), busobola okukuyamba oba okukutusaaako obuvune.Ekikulu ky’olina okumanya kwe kuba nti obulamu obusirikitu bwe businga obungi mu biramu byonna ku nkulungo y’Ensi. Obulamu buno ku Nsi butabalika bwa butabalika bwa butabalika.

Okuva edda n’edda nga mu Buganda okumanya ebiramu eby’enjawulo kintu kya buwangwa naye obulamu obusirikitu bulabika tebwalowoozebwangako nnyo naddala olw’okuba tewaaliwo tekinologiya ayinza kuzimbulukusa busirikitu.

Ekituufu kiri nti obulamu obusirikitu bubaddewo ebbanga lyonna mu bikula bya bbakitiiriya, olufunji, walugi ne polotozoowa. Wano mu Buganda obutiko mmere yadda nnyo ate nga buno buyinza okuba n’akakwate ne walugi (algae). N’olwekyo okuvumbula enzimbulukusa (microscope) mu 1673 kye kyayamba omuntu okumanya nti waliwo obulamu obusirikitu (microbes). Kino kyakolebwa kakensa Anton von Leeuwenhoek bwe yagatta lenza ez’enjawulo awamu n’akizuula nti kyamusobozesa okulaba obuntu obutini ng’ebinene. Kino ky’ayamba bannasayansi okuzuula ekiviirako endwadde n’engeri ey’okuziwonyaamu.

Obulamu obusirikito bulya biramu birala (heterotrophic) oba bwekolera emmere yabwo (autotrophic). These two terms mean they either eat other things (hetero) or make food for themselves (auto). Mu butuufu ebimera byetkolera emmere yabyo( autotrophic) ate ensolo zifuna emmere yabyo okuva ku biramu ebirala (heterotrophic).

Ebiramu era biyinza okuba ebyo ebibeera byokka (solitary). Ekyokulabirako ze polotozoowa nga amibba (amoeba) eyinza okumala obulamu bwayo yokka nga eseyeeya mu mazzi. Ebiramu era biyinza okuba nga fungi bibeera wamu mu bibinja okweyamba okubaawo nga biramu. Ate era ebiramu biyinza okuzaal okuyita mu kwegattakw’ekisajja n’ekikazi (sexually) obaawatali kwegatta kwa kisajja na kikazi (asexually).

Oluusi endagabutonde ey’obulamu obusirikitu obubiri yegatta okutondawo empya, ekikola okuzaala okw’okwegatta kw’ekisajja n’ekikazi (sexual reproduction). Oluusi ekiramu ekisirikitu kyeyabuluzaamu (splits) ebitundu bibii ebifaanagavu (asexual reproduction).


Akasirikitu (microscopic particle) kisonjolwa nga akantu atini ennyo akatasobola kulabika na maaso gali bukunya okujjako nga okozesezza ekyuma ekizimbulukusa. Akasirikitu akalamu (microscopic organ) kaba n’enneeyisa ey’enjawulo eya buli kintu ekiramu.

Ebiramu biyinza okwawulibwamu okusinziira ku butaffaali bwabwo nga wano wansi:

Obuziizite (Prokaryotes) kyekuusiza ku butaffaali obutalina buziizi(nucleus) bwesonjodde bulungi. Weetegereze:

(a)Akaziizi(Neucleus) (b)Obuziite oba ebiziizite =tebulina buziizi bwesonjodde bulunji(no well defined nucleus).


"Ekiziizite" kiraga ekiramu ekirina akataffaali kamu kokka akatalina buziizi bwesonjodde bulungi. Obuziizte kikwata ku bulamu obusirikitu nga obutaffaali bwabwo tebulina buziizi(nucleus) buzimbe obulungi.Endagabutonde yabwo eba nga etengejja okwetoloola akataffaali. Oyinza okulowooza nti ekiramu ekitalina nnyukiriyaasi tekirina kye kiyinza kukola naye ekituufu kiri nti bingi ebikolebwa obuziizite. Ebiziizite ebisinga ziba bakitiriya ate nga bakitiriya zikola ebintu bingi ebyewunyisa.Yadde buno obulamu bwangu nnyo, buli buli buli wamu ku nsi, mu byenda byo, mu mata oba mu bbekeeri y’emigaati.


"Ekiziizina" oba "Obuziizina" (Eukaryotes)


Buno bwe bulamu obulina obuziizi nga busonjole obulungi nga bulina ebitundu eby’enjawulo (organelles).Obuziizna ky’ekintu ky’oba oyogerako mu biramu ebirina obutaffaali obusonjovu obulungi. Obutaffaali bw'obuziizna bulina obuziizi obusonjole obulungi ngabulina ebitundu eby’enjawulo nga ekitundu omukuumirwa endagabutonde era bulina ne nnyukiriyaasi entuufu .Obutaffaali bwa yukaliitu bulina ebitundu (organelles).

Obuziizna butaffaali obuba n'obuziizi obuteeketeeke obulungi , omuli ekifo ekyetongodde omubeera endagabutonde. Mu butuufu obutaffaali bw'ekiziizite buba n’ebitundu eby’enjawulo (organelles) omuli ekyondo (mitochondria), ebitangattiko (chloroplast), oba letikyulamu ya endopulazima (endoplasmic reticulum). Nnyukirayina zirina ebitundu bino okusobozesa akataffaali okuba nga kemalirira mu mirimu gyako.


Ebika by'Obulamu obusirikitu(types of microbes)


(i)Vayiraasi
       ( Viruses)

Bannasayansi abamu bagamba nti vayiraasi si kintu ekiramu.Wansi ka tukulage ki vayiraasi kye zisobola okukola ne ki kye zitasobola. Mu bye zisobola okukola mwe muli:

a) Tebusobola kuzaala ku bwabwo. Ziba zirina okukola okulumba obutaffaali bw’ekiramu mwe buli olwo obutaffaali buno obulimbiddwa

b) Tebuva mu mbeera lu kintu kyonna. Bukola ogwabwo oba busaanawo.

d) Tebulina bitundu bya njawulo kukola mirimu gya njawulo nga mu bitaffaali obumu. Vayiraasi tezirina nnyukiriyaasi, mitokyandira

e) Zirinawo ebitundu ebyetaagisa nga akatundu akatini ak’endagabutonde (DNA oba RNA (si byombi). Akawuzi ako aka asidi wa nnyukirayiki ke kakola obulamu bwa vayiraasi.

f) Zirina olububi lw’ekizimbamubiri (protein coat) okukuuma asidi ya nnyukirayiki. Olububi luno luyitibwa kapusedi (capsid).

Kapusidi ekuuma amakkati ga vayiraasi kyokka ate era y’eyamba okulumba obutaffaali obupya. Vayiraasi ezimu zirina olubaaso (envelope) luno nga lububi olulala olukolebwa lipidi n’ebizimba mubiri mu ngeri y’emu akatoffaali aka bulijjo bwe kabeera.Olubaaso luyamba vayiraasi okuyingirira ensengekera awatali kukettebwa kwonna, ne kiyamba vayiraasi okulumba obutaffaali obupya mu kiramu mw’eba y’egiriisiza.

Vayiraasi zirimu ebika ebikulu bisatu nga bw’onoyiga gye bujja. Mu butuufu, vayiraasi (viruses) tezili wansi wa bwakabaka bwa monera nga bakitiria naye busilikitu nga bakitilia ate yadde tezibalibwa mu bilamu zileeta endwadde mu bantu. Vayilaaasi busilikitu butalina butaffaali era tebubalibwa mu bilamu naye bulina obusobozi okweyubula (repricate themselves) munda mu butaffaali bw’ebilamu.

Vayilaasi tezilina muteleezabulamu w’amaanyikasoboza (energy metabolism) nga bwe kili mu bitonde ebilala, tezikula, tezivaamu kazambi, tezisitimuka (hey do not respond to stimuli) era tezezaala mu bwetengelevu n’olweekyo tezibalibwa mu bilamu.

Obuziba bwazo bulimu DNA oba RNA nga bwetoololeddwa olububi lwa ebizimbamubili (coating of protein). Amakkati ga vayilaasi omusangibwa obuteleke (genes) ye genomu (genome), ate bbulangiti ya kizimbamubili (protein coating) luyitibwa kapisaidi (capsid). Vayilaasi zilina enkula ezizawula. Vayilaasi ezimu zilina enkula ya mpuyiabili (icosahedron), ezilimu mawetasatu eya nakyenkanyi (equlateral triangles). Endala zilina enkula y’amakata (a helix).Vayilaasi ze zileeta namusuna (chickenpox), lebiizi (rabies), mulangila/olukusense (measles), ne sennyiga (influenza)


Bakitiriya

    (Bacteria)


Bakitiria zili mu bwakabaka bwa bilamu obuyitibwa “monera”(wansilikitu ). Bakitilia era zili mu matwaale ga nyukilialitte (Prokaryotes) ensolo ezilna akataffaali oba obutaffaali obutalina nyukiliasi na oligaanile(organelles) okujjako libozomu(ribosomes). Bu bwkabaka bwa “monera” bamemba bezaala awatali kwegadanga (asexual) nga beyubuluzaaamu bibili (binary fission). Tewali bukakafu nti wabeerawo mitosiisi.

Bakitiilia zibeera mu mbeera zonna ku Nsi, mu ttaka, mumazzi, ne mu mpewo (ebbanga). Bakitilia zilimu ebibinja bisatu okusinziila ku nkula (shapes) zazo. Waliwo enekulungilivu eziyitibwa kkukusi (coccus) (the singular is coccus); kabukuuli (rodshaped) obuyitibwa bbakili); n’ezemyenyoolo (spiral bacteria) eziyitibwa sepila (spirilla) Waliwo ezileeta mulalama (meningitis), n’ezileeta gonorrhea, nezileeta. pneumonia,

Ebikwata ku Bakitiria

Bakitilia ezisinga zijja emmele yazo mu sebusitansi z’ebilamu (organic matter). Ezisinga obunji ziyitibwa kalyabifu oba kalyabivunze (saprobic), ekitegeeza nti zilya bifo oba bivunda kyokka waliwo ennyunyuunsi (parasitic). Bakitilia ennyunyuzsi zireeta obulwadde. Bakitiilia endala baziyita neekolerayange (autotrophic), ekitegeeza nti zegattisa (they synthesize) emmele yabyo. Bakitiilia ezo zenyigila mu kkola ektangattisa (photosynthesis). Zikozesa pigimenti ezimelungusiddwa mu saitopulaazima (cytoplasm) wazo.

Waliwo ebibinja bya bakitilia bibili ebitangattisa (photosynthetic bacteria), sulufeeli eza kilagala (green sulfur) n’eza kakobe (purple bacteria). Pigimenti ezili mu bakitilia zino zifaanagana ez’ebimera. Bakitilia zibeera mu tempulikya ez’enjawulo; waliwo ezibeerawo ku tempulikya ezinnyogoga ennyo ate ne wabaawo ezo ezibeera mu tempulikya ey’omubili gw’omuntu (human body temperatures) ate era ne wabaawo ezo ezibeera ku tempulikya ezili waggulu ddala.

Ate era waliwo ezo ezeetaaga wokisijeni okuteleeza obulamu bwazo (for their metabolism) ate newabaawo ezo ezibeera mu mbeera awatali wokisijeni. Ezimu zizobola okubeera awali oba awatali mpewo ate ne wabaawo ezo ezibeera mu mbeera ya asidi mu bbongo ne mulubuto lw’omuntu.

Ebikolebwa bbakitiria

Bakitilia zirina kinene kye zikola okukuuma obutonde bw’ensi. Eky’okulabilako sipiisa za bakitilia ezimu zilya obubalabe bw’emirandira gy’ebimera eby’empeke, mu kukola kino ne ziyamba okuyingiza naitilojeni (nitrogen) okuva mu mpewo okumuteeka mu bipooli by’ebilamu (organic compounds) ebyeyambisibwa ebimera. Ebimera bikozesa ebipooli bya naitilojeni bino okukola aminasidi (amino acids) ebizimbamubili (proteins), n’okubituusa mu nsolo ezibilya. Bakitilia endala zezikola ku kuvunda okubeerawo mu bilamu.

Mu makolelo g’ebyokulya (food industry), bakitilia zikozesebwa okuteekateeka ebikolebwa bingi nga cheeses, fermented dairy products, sauerkraut, and pickles. Mu yindasitule endala bakitilia zikozesebwa okukola antibiotics, chemicals, dyes, numerous vitamins and enzymes, and a number of insecticides. Ku mulembe guno zikozesebwa in genetic engineering to synthesize certain pharmaceutical products that cannot be produced otherwise.

Mu byenda by’omuntu, bakitilia zegattisa /zitabika (synthesize) vitamiini ez’enjawulo ezijjibwa mu mmele naddala vitamin K. bakitiilia era zikola ku mmele eba yepenye ekikamulabiliisa (digestion) mu mubili.

Eky’akabi, bakitilia nnyinji zilwaaza (are pathogenic), ekitegeeza zileeta endwadde mu bantu. Mu ndwadde eziva ku bakitilia mulimu akafuba (tuberculosis), gonorrhea, syphilis, scarlet fever, food poisoning, Lyme disease, plague, tetanus, typhoid fever, and most pneumonias are due to bacteria. In many cases, the bacteria produce powerful toxins that interfere with normal body functions and bring about disease. The botulism (food poisoning) and tetanus toxins are examples. In other cases, bacteria grow aggressively in the tissues (for example, tuberculosis and typhoid fever), destroying them and thereby causing disease.

Bbakitiriya awatali kubuusabuusa kasirikitu akalamu. Bakitiriya ziri buli wamu .Ziri mu migaato gy’olya, ettaka ebimera me bikulira, ne mu mibiri gy’ebiramu ebirala nga n’omuntu bw’omutwalidde. Bbakitiiriya butaffaali bwangu nnyo obuli mu kikula kya nnyukirayite (prokaryotic). Kino kitegeeza nti tezirina nnyukiriyaasi ensonjovu obulungi, bakitiiriya butaffaali busirikitu obulina obuzimbe bwa kataffali kamu (single cells) nga kano ekigenderera kyako mu bulamu kiri kimu kweyabuluzaamu bbakitiiriya ndala. (to replicate). Yadde nga tezirina nnukiriyasi enteeketeeke oba ensonjole, zirina endagabutonde (DNA) esangibwa mu kifo ekiyitibwa nnyukiroodi (nucleoid). Bulina embubi z’obutaffaali (cell membranes) okufaanana n’obutaffaali obulala awamu n’ekisenge ky’akataffaali akakuumi (a protective cell wall). Manya nti ekisenge ky’ataffaali ka bbakitiriya (bactiria cell wall) tekiringa eky’akataffaali k’ekimera kubanga kino ekya bakitiriya kirina ekigendererwa eky’okuwa bakitiiriya obukuumi anti akataffaali ka bakitiiriya tekalina bitundu (organelles) byonna okujjako libosomu.

Bakitiiriya zitunula zitya?

Buramu butini nnyo nnyo mu nkula ey’ebikulungo (spherical) nga bw’olaba omupiira. Butera okwesengeka mu bujegere obuliga emigalamiro gy’entoloovu (enkula ennetoloovu (a row of circles). Bbakitiriya ez’enkula ey’akatayimbwa butunula nga “obukooli” (E. coli) obubeera mu byenda byo. Teebereza akalimba ka bbakitiriya obufaanana butyo.Busobola okukola enjegere nga sosegi ezikwataganye. Kyokka waliwo na bbakitiirya ez’enkula eya sipayiro (spiral shaped bacteria)

Bbakitiriya zikola ki ?

Kino kiramu ekirina akataffaalikazimbila akamu (one-celled living organisms). Tekalina nyukiliasi (nucleus). Bakitilia Bbakitiriya zikola ebintu bingi. Ezimu ziyamba ebimera okuyingiza naitogyeni (N) okuva mu ttaka ate ezimu zireeta endwadde kyokka ezimu ozisanga mu mbuto z’ente okuziyamba okukutulakutula mu seruloozi (to break down cellulose).

Embuto z’ente ku lwazo ziyinza okukola ku muddo n’ebimera kyokka tezisobola kuyingiza biriisa bya bimala okuva mu bimera bino ate nga tezisobola kukutulakutula mu seruloozi. Bbakitiriya ezo ezirina oobusobozi obw’enjawulo, ze zikutulakutula mu seruloozi okufuna ebisukaali (sugars) ekisobozesa okufulumya amasoboza agetaagisa. Teebereza singa bannasayansi baba basobodde okukola bbakitiriya ezibeera mu mbuto zaffe okusobola okukutulakutula ebimera nga bibadde biriiriddwa bibisi. Awo naffe abantu tuba tusobola okulya omuddo n’ebikoola emisana lwonna.

Bakitilia kiva mu kya lulattini: bacterium ekiva mu ky’olugeleeki baktērion, era kikwata ku matwaale(domian) g’obulamu obusilikitu obulina enkula ez’enjawulo; obumu bulinga makata obulala bwekulungilivi ate obumu bulinga munwe gwa ttooke mu nkula. Obutafaanana na butaffaali bwa nsolo, obutaffaali bwa bakitiilia tebulina nyukiliasi.

Bakitilia tewali wetakulila kubanga ogisanga mu mazzi, wansi mu kikalappwa ky’ensi (earth’s crust), kasasilo, munda ne kungulu kw’emibili gy’ebimera n’ensolo, naddala mu miyitilo gy’emmele (digestive systems) mu bantu, enkuyege n’ebiyenje. Mu ggulaamu emu eyettaka mubaamu obutaffaali bwa bakitiilia emitwaalu ana ate mu mililiita y’amazzi agatali ga lunnyo mubaamu obutaffaali bwa bakitilia akakadde kamu. Bw’ogatta bakitilia zonna ezili mu nsi zikola enzitoya esinga ey’ebimelo n’ensolo zonna.

Bakitilia zilina emigaso ate era ne ziba n’obubi bwe zikola. Waliwo bakitilia ezikozesebwa okuzza obujja ebiliisa (recycling nutrients), gamba nga okuteeka naitilojeni mu ttaka (fixation of nitrogen ) okuva mu nampewo (atmosphere ). Bakitilia era ze zisobozesa okuvunza kw’ebifudde. Singa ebilamu ebifa byaali tebivunda Ensi yandibadde ejjula n’ebooga emilambo gy,ebifu, ebilamu ne biba nga tebikyalina we bibeera.

Mu mubili gw’omuntu mubaamu bakitilia ezisinga ku butaffaali bw’omubili obunji naye ol’omubili okuba n’ensengekera y’obukuumi ey’obutonde (natural immune system,) bakitilia zino ezisinga obunji tezikola buvune mu mubili. Kyokka waliwo bakitilia ezimu ezileeta endwadde omuli kkolera, kabootongo, ebigenge (liprosy) ne kawumpuli (plague)

Bakitiliya ezisinga okuba kattila mulimu ezo ezilumba ensengekera y’okussa (.Respiratory infections,) nga akafuba (TB) akatugumbula ennyo abantu naddala mu afilika. Antibbayotiki (antibiotics ) zikozesebwa okukola ku bulwadde bwa bakitiilia.

Bakitilia bwasooka kukettebwa Antonie van Leeuwenhoek mu 1676, nga akozesa lenza z’ekizimbulukusa (microscope lens) kye yali y’ekoledde.Bakitilia zino yaziyita “bukyolo”("Animalcules)" Kisuubilwa nti obujajja bwa bakitiilia eziliwo kati bwali mu bulamu obw’akataffaali aka namunigina nga buno bulowoozebwa okuba nga bwe bulamu obwasooka okubaawo ku Ensi emyaaka obuwumbi nga buna egiyise. Ebiseera ebyo ku Ensi tekwaliko bilamu bilala byonna.

Bakitilia zilina akakwate akamaanyi n’ebilamu ebilara byonna .bakitilia zikulila ku mubili gw’ekilamu nga ensolo oba ekimera mu ngeli y’emu gye zibeera ku bintu ebilala. Bakitilia zikulila bulungi awabuguumilila n’awali entuuyo oba olutuuyotuuyo era bwe ziyitila obungi ku mubili gw’omuntu ziviilako omuntu okuwunya olusu olubi (body odor). Eno y’ensonga lwaaki omuntu alina okunaaba mu biseera ebigele awatali kwosaaamu.

Waliwo ne bakitilia eziviilako abantu okufuna endwaade n’okufa obulwadde nga tetanaasi, omusujja gwa tayifoidi (typhoid fever), diputiilia (diphtheria), sifiliizi (syphilis), kolera (cholera), endwadde z’ebigele, ebigenge n’akafuba (tuberculosis). Ne mu agilikakya mulimu endwadde za bakitiilia nnyingi ku faamu n’ennimilo. Kyokka mu yindasitule bakitiilia ezimu zitabulwa mu bizimbulukusa (yeasts) n’entikotiko (molds), mu kuteekateeka emmele ezekiivululu (fermented foods) nga kyiizi vayinega (vinegar) evinnyo/wayini), ne bbongo (yogurt).

Obusobozi bwa bakitilia okukutulakutula ebipooli by’ebilamu eby’enjawulo bukozesebwa okujja kaidulokaboni (hydrocarbons) mu petuloliyaamu era kno ne kikozesebwa mu kulwanyisa amafuta agaba ganjadde naddaka mu mayanja.


(iii)Polotozoowa (Protozoa) 

Polotozowa buramu obusirikitu obusinga okuba obuzibuwavu. Polotozowa nnyukiralina ezirina obuzimbe obw’enjawulo era polotozoowa ziyinza okuba nga bwe bulamu obusookerwako obwa ebiramu ebizimbibwa obutaffaali obunji(multicellular organisms). Kino kitegeeza nti zirina obuzimbe obusobola okulabibwa ne mu bitonde eby’omutendera ogwa waggulu, obutali wantu walala wonna mu nsi ey’obulamu obusirikitu. Wamo ojja kusanga obulamu obusirikitu obusinga nga  :

a) the plasmodial slime molds.

b) Ameba(amoebas)

c) Obwenkira (flagellates) nga sipongi (sponges). Buno bulina obuzimbe obulinga akakira

d) Obwoyaya (cilia). Buno buba bwoya obutini obumpi.Eky’okulabirako ye palamesiyamu (Paramecium). Bulina obwoya obutini ku mubiri gwabwo gwonna. Obwoya buno bukuba amazzi ne busobozesa akaramu kano okutambula mu mazzi.

e) Sepironza (sporozoans). Sepironza (sporozoans) ziba polotozoowa ennyunyunsi (parasitic protests). Obulwadde bwa Malaria bureetebwa polotozowa ennyunyunsi eyiri mu kikula kya sepironza. Polotozowa eno okufaanana n’obulamu obunyunyusi (parasites) bwonna tesobola kubeerawo ku lwayo wabula erumba ekiramu ekirala era n’ekikolako obuvune oluvannyuma lw’ekiseera.

(vii) Funji(Fungi)
(viii) Lukeniya (Lichen)

Waliwo obulamu obusilikitu obw’omugaso (Good Microbes) n’obulamu obusirikitu obw’obulabe (Bad Microbes).


(iv)Olufungi (Fungus)


Olufungi(fungus) lulimu ebika nga n’olukonge mw’olutwalidde .Olukonge(molds) mu butuufu lufungi .Tulaba olukonge mu binaabiro byaffe oba ku mugaati oguba gukukula. Olufungi lulina enkula ey’oluzigooti (zygote). Obuyisiti (yeasts) buba lufungi olw’akataffaali akamu(celled fungi) kyokka olukonge(molds) luba lufungi olw’obutaffaali obungi(multicellular fungi). Omugaati gwetaaga olugungi olw’ekika ky’obuyisiti (yeast) okuguzimbulukusa .Bw’oleka omugaati wabweri, guyingirirwa ekika ky’olufungi ekirala ekiyitibwa olukonge lw’omugaati (bread mold) okugufumya. Obuyisite bwetaagisa ekivundiso (fermentation) ekiyiisa omwenge.

Obutiko

Obutiko(mushrooms) nabwo kika kya lufungi(a type of fungi)Let's look at Club Fungi first. Mushrooms! Everyone knows about these fungi. Obutiko biba birimba bya miraatira (starnds) ebibeera mu ttaka nga biyitibwa kayifa (hyphae) .Kayifa zino lwe lufungi lwennyini olusookerwako, bino nga biba bikoola ebiba mu kuvunda oba ebikuta by’emiti ebiba bivunda ku ttaka. Ekiseera bwe kituuka okuzaala, ne bufuna omutunsi n’ekikoffiira n’obulaba nga bufuluma nga bumeruka okuva mu ttaka. Wansi w’ekikoffiira wasangibwayo sipuwa z’olufungi (fungus spores).

Obulamu obusirikitu obw’omugaso (Useful Microbes)


Yadde nga obulamu obusirikitu obumu bwa bulabe eri omuntu kyokka ate obumu bwa mugaso; mu ngeri zino:

(i) Okuyingiza naitogyeni mu ttaka. Waliwo bbakitiiriya eziyingiza naitogyeni mu ttaka (fixing nitrogen). Bbakitiiriya zino zibeera mu mirandira gya bimera era kino kigiyamba okuyingiza naitogyeni okuva mu ttaka. Naitogyeni agasa nnyo ebimera okukula obulungi era bakitiriya zino ze zisobozesa kino.

(ii) Ensolo nga ente n’embuzi zisobola okubeerawo ku muddo olw’obulamu obusirikitu (microbes) obusangibwa mu lubuto lwayo. Bbakitiriya ezisangibwa mu lubuto lw’ente ziyamba okukutulakutula zeruloozi mu bimera. Bbakitiriya zino zisangibwa mu nsolo zonna ezirya omuddo okuziyamba okuba ennamu yadde nga zirya muddo.

(iii) Olukonge olumera ku mukyungwa ogutanise okwonooneka mwe mwavumbulwa eddagala erirwanyisa bbakitiiriya (antibiotics). N’olwekyo olufungi (fungi) mwe muva eddagala erilwanyisa endwadde ezireetebwa bbakitiiriya. Dokita bw’akwkebejja n’akizuula nti olumbiddwa bbakiiriya (bacterial infection), akugerera eddagala erilwanyisa bbakitiiriya nga linafuya ebisenge by’obutffaali bwa bbakitiriya. Ebisenge bya bbakitiiriya bwe biba ebinafu omutaffaali bwo obukuumi (immune cells) bugenda mu maaso ne busaanyaawo bbakitiiriya.


Obulamu Obusirikitu obw’obulabe ku bulamu


Waliwo obulamu busirikitu nga bbwo bwa bulabe ku bulamu. Mu butuufu ebikula bya bbakitiiriya bingi bireeta endwadde mu Bantu, ensolo, n’ebimera. Abantu beeraliikirira nnyo bbakitiiriya ezireeta obulwadde nga tetanaasi(tetanus) n’obukooli ( E. coli). Kyokka waliwo ate era ebika by’obukooli ebirungi obusangibwa mu byenda byo okuyamba okukutulakutula emmere gy’olya ekigireetera okuwunya ng’ewedde okukolebwako obukooli buno. Waliwo n’obukooli bw’oyinza okufuna nga olidde ennyama etayidde bulungi. Obukooli buno bbakitiiriya embi eziyinza okukuteeka ku ndiri n’okukutta.

Manya: Mu bulamu obusirikitu kimanyiddwa nti mulimu bbakitiiriya ennungi ne bbakitiiriya ez’obulabe naye tekimanyiddwa oba nga waliwo vayiraasi ez’omugaso mu Nsi. Vayiraasi ez’obulabe zirimu “laabbiiisi” (rabies), lubyamira (Pneumonia), ne mulalama ( Meningitis). Okuyita mu ssomo lya Tekinologia w’ebiramu (Biotechnology) bannasayansi banoonyereza n’okukola enkakaso ku vayiraasi, bbakitiiriya, ne fungi olw’ensonga ez’enjawulo ney ensonga esinga obukulu lwa kuba nti obulamu obusirikitu buno buyinza okuba obw’obuvune ennyo okusinga ensolo zo mu nsiko enkwambwe nga empologomma oba goonya.

Kyokka era obuamu obusirikitu bukola ebitoolo (compounds) okukola eddagala eppya eriyamba mu kujjanjaba endwadde oba oli awo lumu omuntu ayinza okugemebwa okuziyiza sennyiga oba ebbola oba HIV aids. Mu butuufu laabu ziri mu kukola eddagala eppya oba ery’amaanyi okusingawo mu kulwanyisa bbakitiiriya.