Obuwangaaliro( Environment)

Bisangiddwa ku Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Gakuweebwa Charles Muwanga !! "Obuwangaaliro"(the environment) gwe gumu ku miramwa egitondekeddwawo Ssekalowooleza Muwanga Charles.

Obuwangaaliro kiva mu bigambo by'oluganda "obutonde bw'ensi mwe tuwangaalira". Kati nno tuyinza okwogera ku:

(i) Okukuuma obuwangaaliro (Environment protection) (ii) Obuwangaaliro obw'obutonde(natural environment) (iii) Sayansi w'Obuwangaaliro(Environment Science) (iv) Etteka ly'Obuwangaaliro(Environment Law)

Kibadde kizibu okuvvuunula "the natural environment" nga tukyakozesa "obutonde bw'Ensi" ng'omulamwa oguvvuunula "environment".

Obuwangaaliro bwaffe bulimu:

(a) Ebiramu nga ebimera , ensolo ,n'obulamu obusirikitu(Microbs) (b) Ebitali biramu nga ettaka, enjazi, emigga, ennyanja, entobazi , ebibira, ensozi n'obusozi, semayanja ne waluyanja, nampewo, enjuba , n'ebirala


Obuwangaaliro (the Environment )

Obuwangaaliro mulamwa oguva mu bigambo by’oluganda “obutonde bw’ensi mwe tuwangaalira”, ekitegeeza obutonde bw’ensi mwe tubeera.

Olulimi olutalina nzimba ya bigambo nnambulukufu lutera okukozesa ebigambo ebitajjaayo bulungi mulamwa guba gwa nsonga. Oluganda lubadde lukjozesa ebigambo “obutonde bw’ensi” (the natural world) okutegeeza “obuwangaaliro”(environment). Obvutonde bw’ensi tekiri wala nnyo na makulu gano naye tekikkaatiriza bulungi bwetaavu ebiramu bye bulina ku butonde bw’ensi.

Obuwangaaliro kikkaatiriza nti mu “butonde bw’ensi obw’obutonde”(the natural world as God created it ) , si mu nsi eyonooneddwa omuntu , mwe tujja obulamu (mwe tuwangaalira).

Obuwangaaliro bwaffe (Our environment)

Obuwangaaliro (environment) kitegeeza buli kintu ekirina akakwate n’ekiwangaalio kyaffe (our habitat) era nga kirina akakwate n’obsobozi bwaffe okuba abalamu ku nsi nga empewo gye tussah, amazzi getukozesa, ebimera n’ebisolo ebiwangaalira ku nsi oba mu bitundu byaffe, ettaka kwe tulimira n’ebirala bingi.

Ekiwangaaliro = ekifo abantu oba ebiramu mwe biwangaalira oba mwe bibeera (habitat) Obuwangaaliro = embeera mwe tuwangaalira oba etwetoolodde (environment)

Obuwangaaliro bw’obutonde mulimu:

(i) Ebibira (ii) Obusozi n’Ensozi (iii) Semazzi (water bodies) .Muno mulimu emigga, emyala, entobazi, seluyanja(oceans) , waluyanja(seas),enzizi, okunokoolayo ezimu (iv) Eddungu (v) Olusaalu n’ettale (vi) Ebiwonvu n’ebikko (vii) Empewo (viii) Entababimera (vegatation) (ix) Ettaka n’enjazi

Ettaka (Soil)

Ettaka lububi olusangibwa ku safeesi y’ensi. Ettaka likolebwa amazzi, empewo, ebimera ebyafa, n’obutoffali obw’enjazi.

Ettaka ery’olusenyu (Sandy soil) – lya luyinja (rough), lirina obutoffaali bunene.

Ettaka ery’ebbumba (Clay soil) – ssi lya luyinja (smooth), sseerevu (slippery) ate lya luwunga (powdery).

Lubogwe (Loam) – lirimu ebirungo by’olusenyu, olubumba, awamu ne nakavundira w’ebimera n’ensolo.

Emigaso gy’ettaka  Okukuza ebirime  Okukuba obutoffaali  Okuzimba  Okuwunda

Ensibuko z’obutonde ez’enkyukakyuka mu buwangaaliro Ekyeya, kibuyaga, enkubakirinnyamutikka, amataba, musisiwazansi, n’ebirala.

Okukosa obuwangaaliro kikosa ki? - Enjala olw’ekyeya - Okwonoona amaka n’ebyamu olw’embuyaga, amataba, ne musisiwazansi - Ekikuluggusattaka (Soil erosion) - Ebirwadde - Okusengula abantu

Engeri e’okukuumamu obuwangaaliro

- Enzimba ennungi - Okulunda n’okuzimba ebigoberera sayansi - Okufuga entema y’emiti - Okuziiyiza okwokya ebibiri n’ensiko - Okukendeeza okwokya Amanda

Okuziiyiza okwonoona obuwangaaliro - Okuzza emiti we gitemeddwa (afforestation) - Okukuuma entobazi (wetlands) - Okwewala okwokya ebisiko (bushes) - Okubikka agawonko (gullies) n’enjazi - Okusomesa abantu akabenje k’okwonoona obuwanagaaliro - Okuziityiza ekikulugguso ky’ettala

Ekikulugguso ky’ettaka (soil erosion)

- Kirimu okukuluggusa ettaka okuva mu kifo ekimu okuritwala mu kirala. - Kikulugusa ettaka eggimu eririba ku ngulu ne kireka ettaka erya wansi eritaliimu bugimu. Weetegereze:

Ekikulugguko = run-off Ekikulugguso = erosion

Okuziiyiza ekikulugguso ky’ettaka (preventing soil erosion)

- Okusimba emiti - Okusimba omuddo oba ebirime - Okubikkirira (mulching) - Okutema emikutu (digging contours)


5. Ensibuko y’Obuwangaaliro bwaffe (The Origin of our environment) Ensibuko y’Ensi yaffe eri mu nsibuko ya bwengula era eno y’ensibuko y’obuwangaaliro bwaffe nga Katonda bwe yakigereka.

Obwengula kye ki?

Obwengula, omuntu owa bulijjo ayinza okukiyita ebutonda, eggulu, olubaale oba ebbanga. Naye ekituufu kiri nti obwengula (universe) bulimu ebisionde (galaxies), seng’endo (cerestial bodies) ez’enjawulo nga enjuba n’emmunyenye ez’enjawulo ate nga buli njuba oba emmunyenye eba n’enkulungo ate nga buli nkulungo ebba n’omwezi oba emyezi egigyetoloola.

Obwengula, sengendo ezibulimu, na buli ekiri ku/mu seng’endo zino kye kiyitibwa obutonde, ebiramu n’ebitali biramu.

Osaanye okimanye nti ebiramu n’ebitali biramu ebiriwo mu butonde byonna wamu bye bikola obwengula. Bino byonna okutwalira awamu birina akakwate n’obuwangaaliro bwaffe, obutonde bw’ensi mwe tuwangaalira.

Ensibiko y’Obwengula

Ebyawandiikibwa ebitukuvu biraga nti oluberyeberye Namugereka yasooka kutonda bwengula nga tannaba kutonda bulamu.Soma mu Bbayibbuli Oluberyeberye 1:1).

Okusinziira ku bannakyerongooserezo(evolutionists) , Katonda yasooka kutonda “ekire nabire” (the nebular cloud) kyokka nga ebbanga lyonna likutte enzikiza ey’amaanyi ennyo . Bwe waayitawo ekiseera, Katonda n’agamba nti kati wabeewo obwengula. Ne wabaawo okubwatuka okunene (bigbang) mu kire nabire.

Okubwatuka kuno kugenda okukkakkana nga waliwo seng’endo ez’enjawulo eziri mu kutondekebwawo enkola z’obutonde nga “empalirizo ezisikira mu nzitoya” oba essikirizo (gravity).

Bannasayansi kye bayita okubwatuka okunene kirabika okuba nga lyali ddoboozi lya Katonda ery’omwanguka kuba nabo bateebereza buteebereza.

Ekyewuunyo ekyeyorekera mu ngeri Namugereka gye yaluka obwengula

Mukono gwa Katonda ogw’amaanyi gwokka gwe guyinza okuluka okukontana ne kuvaamu enteekateeka ekuumira ebintu awamu ate mu kibalo ne sayansi owa waggulu.

Okunnyonnyoka okukontana okukuumira obwengula mu mugendo omusengeke obulungi ate mu kibalo ekya waggulu, omuntu ow’omulembe guno asaana okumanya ensengeka oba enteekateeka ya seng’endo (cosmic bodies) eziri mu bwengula (cosmos/universe):

Lwaki buli nzitoya(mass) eri mu bwengula eyitibwa seng’endo? Kubanga buli ekiri mu bwengula kiri mu mugendo ogutakoma nga kiseyeeya mu kkubo lyakyo. Bwe twogera ku bwengula n’olwekyo tutegeeza obwaguuga bw’enzitoya eziri mu bwengula. Sengendo eziri mu bwengula zisengekeddwa mu nsengeka ey’ekibalo ekya waggulu bwe ziti:

(a) Ebisinde(Galaxes) (b) Enjuba =emmunyenye(the Suns/Stars) (c) Enkulungo (planets) n’emyezi gyazo

Obadde olimu okubuusabuusa nti Katonda gy’ali ate nga ye Katonda w’obwengula bwonna ateekumira mu miti, mu njazi, mu njuba, oba mu myoyo egy’enjawulo?

Sooka omanye nti obwengula kintu ekirina obumu kubanga bulimu  enjuba/emmunyenye , n’ensengekera zazo (solar systems)  ,   nga buli nsengekera ya  njuba erimu enkulungo(planets)  ate nga buli nkulungo eriko omwezi oba emyezi(moons). 

Ensengekera z’enjuba(emmunyenye) ziri mu bibinja ebiyitibwa ebisinde(galaxies) ebiri mu kuva okw’entakoma(constanbt motion) mu bwengula buli emu n’enjuba zayo nazo eziri mu mugendo ogutakoma n’enkulungo zaayo .

Ebisinde ebiri mu bwengula butabalika ate buli kisinde kirimu ensengekera z’enjuba (solar systems) bukadde na bukadde nga buli nsengekera ya njuba yebulunguddwa enkulungo nga eno enkulungo y’Ensi kwe tuli. Sseng’endo kiraga nti buli ekiri mu bwengula ka bibe bisinde, ebire nabire (the nebular clouds) , njuba oba munyenye, oba emyezi , yadde obutoffaali obusirikitu nga obuziba(atomu), kiri mu kuva okutakoma.

Kakensa Johannes Kapler yakizuula nti enkulungo mu nsengekera y’enjuba yaffe zigondera amateeka ga Katonda gano abakafiiri ge bayita amateeka g’obutonde, gy’obeera obutonde bwe bwetonda:

(i) Enkulungo zetoloola (orbit) enjuba mu kiripuso (ellipse) so si mu bwetoloovu obutuukirivu nga bwe kyali kirowoozebwa. Enjuba ebeera wakati mu kiripuso kino. Kino kitegeeza nti buli nkulungo waliwo ekiseera w’ebeerera okumpi ennyo n’enjuba. Enkulungo bweba eri kumpi n’enjuba edduka emisinde mingiko okusinga ng’eri walako nayo olw’ okuba nga okuliraana enjuba akanyigirizi (pressure) keyongera okukka wansi ekintu ekiddusa enjuba okusingako.

(ii) Enkulungo gy’ekoma okuba ewala okuva ku njuba yayo gy’ekoma okulwaawo okumalako okwetoloola kwayo era gy’ekoma okuba n’omwaka omuwanvu. Kitegeeza nti buli nkulungo erina obuwanvu bw’omwaka bwa njawulo okuva ku ndala. Omwaka gw’enkulungo y’Ensi gulimu ennaku 365.26.

Amateeka ag’Ensibo agafuga obwengula

Amateeka agafuga oba agabezaawo obwengula mateeka ga Katonda kubanga amateeka gano mwe muli sayansi omukusike obutonde kwe butambulira. Tegasobola kuba mateeka ga butonde kubanga obutonde tebulina magezi; amagezi gonna agasukkulumye gali mu Kalimagezi omusukkulumu, Katonda.


Amateeka ag’ensibo agafuga obwengula galaga enteekateeka eya kagezimunyu asukkulumye ku bonna. Obwengula bugondera amateeka g’essomabuziba (chemistry), Essomabuzimbe (physics) n’ekibalangulo (mathematics) agasengekeddwa obulungi.

Okutwalira awamu, agamu ku mateeka ga Katonda w’obutonde agafuga seng’endo (cerestial bodies) mu bwengula ge gano:


A. Omugendo ogutakoma. Buli kintu mu bwengula kiri mu mugendo ogutakoma. Buli sengendo buli kaseera eba eseeyeeya mu kkubo lyayo; kino kitegeeza buli golomola, buli njuba, buli nkulungo, na buli ndagamwezi biri mu mugendo ogutakoma kyokka nga tewali kimala gava mu kkubo lyakyo kutomeragana na kirala.

Omugendo guno guli ne mu biramu ku Nsi .Buli kiramu kiri mu mugendo ogutakoma; kizaalibwa ne kikula nakyo ne kizaala ne kikaddiwa bwe kimala ne kifa nga kireseewo ebiramu ebyongezaayo sipiisa yaakyo.

B. Emplirizo esikira mu sengendo/Essikirizo (Gravity).

Lwaki enkulungo ziba mu mugendo okwetoloola enjuba obutagivaako? Eyasooka okuddamu ekibuuzo kino yali mungereza kakensa mu sayansi ayitibwa Isaac Newton , emyaka ng’ebikumi bisatu egiyise. Isaac Newton yakizuula nti ensonga lwaki enkulungo ziseyeeya okwebulungula enjuba kiva ku kintu kye kimu lwaki bw’osuula ekintu kigwa ku ttaka (ku Ensi). 


Yawumbawumba ng’agamba nti empalirizo esikira mu njuba eyitibwa esikrizo ly’enjuba (the sun’s gravitational force) esika enkulungo mu ngeri y’emu empalirizo esikira ku Ensi, eyitibwa essikrizo ly’ensi (the earth’s gravitational force) gye gasika buli kintu ekitalina maanyi gawaliriza (force) malala era nga ge gamu agakuumira nze naawe ku ttaka. Wabula teyaddamu kibuuzo : ani eyateekateeka empalirizo zino ezisika buno(enzitoya mu bwengula) okweyisa bwe butyo ?


Yayongera n’agamba nti ekintu gye kikoma okuzitowa gye kikoma okuvaamu empalirizo esika (pulling force ) eyitibwa essikirizo(gracvity) ennyingi ate gye kikoma okuwewuka gye kikoma okuvaamu empalirizo esika entono.


Seng’endo esinga okuba n’obuzito olw’enzitoya (mass) ennene gy’eba nayo eba njuba. Eno y’ ensonga lwaki evaamu essikirizo (gravity) , empalirizo esika , esinga obungi mu nsengekera yaayo era n’ekuumira buli sengendo oba enkulungo eri mu kyebulungulo kyayo mu kifo w’eri ng’egyetoloola.


Essikirizo , nga eno eba mpalirizo esikira mu nzitoya ennene, eba mu njuba , mwe muli ekyama ekiwanga bu seng’endo obutono obuseyeeya nga bugyebulungula mu mugendo okutakoma. Enkulungo y’ ensi (planet earth) yaffe esangibwa mu kyebulungulo ky’essikirizo ly’enjuba Muwanga (solar gravitational field).


Seng’endo gy’ekoma obunene, gy’ekoma n’okuvaamu essikirizo eringi. Eno y’ensonga lwaki yadde buli nkulungo evaamu essikrizo kyokka essikrizo ery’enjuba lisukkulunye kubanga enjuba, senkulungo, esukkulumye mu bunene ku nkulungo zaayo zonna ng’ozigasse wamu. Ekibalo ky’essikirizo, empalirizo esikira mu nzitoya ennene, ye mpagi ewaniridde sengendo mu bwengula. Essikirizo lirimu:

a. Empalirizo ezisikira ku mpuyibbiri (opposing forces). Buli njuba (mmunyeenye) esika enkulungo zaayo kyokka zo zigezaako okugyewaggulako.Kino kiri bwe kityo olw’empalirizo esikira mu makkati n’empalirizo eyewaggula ku makkati eziriwo mu butonde. Obumu bw’okukontana buno bwe buvaamu omugendo gw’enkulungo okwetoloola enjuba yaazo.

b. Empalirizo eskria mu kifundikwa kya golomola. Buli kisinde kirina ekifundikwa omusibuka empalirizo esika enjuba zaayo okusigala munda mw’ekisinde ekyo. Golomola emu ebaamu ensengekerera z’enjuba buwumbi na buwumbi.

c. Empalirizo esikira mu njuba (The sun’s gravitational force). Okukontana kw’amaanyi gano n’amaanyikyewaggula ku njuba kwe kukuuma enkulungo z’enjuba zonna okusigala, buli emu, mu kkubo lyayo mwe yetoloolera ng’egyebulungudde mu kyebulungulo kyaayo eky’essikirizo (gravitational field).

d. Empalirizo esikira mu nkulungo (Planetary gravitational force). Okukontana wakati w’empalirizo eno n’eya kyewaggula okubeera mu mwezi kye kikuumira emyezi nga giseyeeya gyetooloola enkulungo yagyo era kye kikuumira buli kintu ekiri ku oba mu kyebulungulo ky’essikirizo ly’enkulungo (planetary gravitational fierd) mu kifo we kiri.

e. Empalirizo esikira mu mwezi (the moon’s gravitational force). Omwezi gwa buli nkulungo guli mu mugendo gwa mwezi mulamba okwetoloola enkulungo yagwo; na buli nkulungo eri mu mugendo gwa mwaka mulamba okwetoloola enjuba yaayo. Omweezi gw’ensi gulimu ennaku ng’asatu ate omwaka ennaku nga 365.


Empagi ewaniridde Seng’endo mu Bwengula ya kyewuunyo

Oba enjuba erimu empalirizo esika enkulungo zaayo, lwaaki tezebbika munda mwayo ne zaaka ne zifuuka vvu? Kino nakyo kibalo kya Katonda eky’ekyewuunyo. Wano Namugereka yateekawo empalirizo esikira ku mpuyibbiri.

Emaplirizo ezisikira mu mpuyibbiri (opposing forces) zeyoleka ng’ empalirizo ezisikira mu makkati (centrepetal force) n’empalirizo eziviira amakkati (centrefugal force). Ng’ojjeeko okusikibwa okuva mu njuba (mu makkati g’enjuba), ,enkulungo ate era ebeera mu kikolwa eky’okwewaggula okuva ku njuba yaayo.


Kino kye kimu ne bw’osiba akazito ku luwaya, akagwa, oba oluwuzi oluwanvu n’okawuuba (okazunza) ng’oketolooza. Bw’okola kino oba okasikira ku mukono gwo mu ngeri y’emu “empalirizo esikira mu njuba” gy’esika enkulungo ng’egizza munda kyokka empalirzo eyewaggula ku makkati n’ekuumira akazito mu kwetoloola.


Awatali mpalirizo eviira makkati (mu ngeri ey’okwagala okwewaggula), akazito kaba kagwaayo mu makkati ate era awatali kusikira mu makkati akazito kaba kasigala mu mugendo omugolokofu okuviira amakkati era kino kye kibaawo singa akagwa k’owuuba okatadde.


Bwe twogera ku “mpalirizo esikira mu makkati” mu luganda mba ndaga engeri ez’enjawulo “essikirizo” (Gravity)gye lyeyisaamu mu bwengula. Mu butuufu, ebintu ebiri mu kwetoloola bifuna okwaagala okudda munda (mu makkati). Kino kye kiyitibwa empalirizo esikira mu makkati. Empalirizo eyeyunira amakkati y’empalirirza (force) eleetera enkulungo eba yetoloola enjuba okufuna okusikibwa okuva mu makati ga senkulungo eyo . Wano we wali obwetaavu bw’empalirizo esikira mu makkati"(centripetal force ") mu essomabutonde; oba si ekyo , ekintu ekidduka kiba kyeyongerayo butereevu awatali kuweta.


Ku ludda olulala omuntu ayinza okulowooza nti waliwo engeri y’ebintu eby’etoloola okwagala okudda ebweeru. Kino kye kiyitibwa empalirizo eyewaggula ku makkati (centrifugal force). Mu butuufu , ekigambo ky’olungereza “centripetal force” kiva mu kya lulattini ekitegeeza” okunoonya amakkati”(seeking the centre) ate centrifugal “ okwewaggula ku makkati” (fleeing the centre).


Okuteekawo okukontana wakati w’empalirizo ezisikira mu makkati n’empalirizo eviira amakkati y’empagi Namugereka gyakozesa ewaniridde seng’endo zonna eziri mu bwengula . Yadde nga buli seng’endo Katonda yagiteekamu essikrizo(gravity), gy’ekoma obunene gy’ekoma okuba n’amaanyi gano agasika endala entono eziri mu kyebulungulo kyayo.

Amateeka ag’ensibo Agafuga Enkulungo y’Ensi n’Ebyayo


Gano nago mateeka ga Katonda w’obutonde. Nga bwe guli mu bwengula , n’Ensi erina ensengekera yaayo n’amateeka ga Katonda kwetambuliza ebigiriko. Amateeka gano agakwekuddwa era galaga nti obutonde ku Nsi busengekeddwa mu kibalo kya waggulu nnyo bwe buti :

(i) Essikirizo ly’ensi . (Earth’s gravity). Ng’essikirizo ly’enjuba bwe lisika enkulungo eziri mu kyebulungulo ky’enjuba, n’essikirizo ly’ensi lisikira ku nsi buli kintu kyonna ekiri mu kyebulungulo kya yo (its field) mu bwengula nga n’omwezi gw’Ensi , kaluuna , mw’ogutwalidde. Ekikuuma nampewo (atmosphere) kyekuusiza ku ssikirizo lya Nsi.

(ii) Nampewo (Earth’s atmosphere). Era essikrizo ly’ensi lye liyamba okukuuma bbulangiti ya “nampewo’ omuli ebirungo by’emikka egy’obulamu nga yebulungudde Ensi . Enkulungo ezitaliiko bulamu zebulunguddwa ekiyitibwa bbulangiti ya “namikka” (planatory atmosphere).

(iii) Ekifo eky’ekibalo. Ensi y’enkulungo yokka mu nsengekera y’enjuba Muwanga eri mu kifo eky’ekibalo okuva ku njuba okusobozesa embeera z’obulamu okubaawo.Enkulungo y’ensi era yebulunguddwa nampewo atabikiddwa mu bipimo by’emikka ebyekibalo ekituufu ebikola empewo esobola okubeezaawo obulamu.

(iv) Omugendo gw’enkulungo y’Ensi. Ng’ojjeko okwetoloola enjuba muwanga ennaku 365 (buli mwaka) , ate era enkulungo y’ensi yetoloolera ku kisiisi (axis) oba obutuuliro bwayo essaawa 24 okusobozesa buli katundu ku nsi okufuna ebbugumu n’obunnyogovu ebitali bikalaamufu , ekintu ekyetaagisa okukuuma obulamu ku Nsi. Okwetoloola enjuba okumalako ennaku 365 kye kiyitibwa ekyebulungulo(Revolution) ate okwetoloola ku ekisiisi yayo okumala essaawa 24 kye kiyitibwa ekyetoloolo(Rotation).