Milton Obote

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Apollo Milton Obote (28 Ogwekkuminebiri 1925 – 10 Ogwekkumi 2005) Mukulembeze w'eby'obufuzi eyakulembera Uganda okutuuka ku meefuga gaayo okuva mu nfuga y'abangereza ey'amatwale mu 1962. Oluvanyuma lw'amefuga g'eggwanga, yaweerezako nga Ssaabaminisita wa Uganda okuva mu 1962 okutuusa mu 1966 era yali Pulezidenti wa Uganda okuva mu 1966 okutuusa mu 1971, era naddamu n'akulembera okuva mu 1980 okutuusa mu 1985.

Yatandikawo ekibiina ky'ebyobufuzi ekya Uganda People's Congress (UPC) mu 1960, eky'akola omulimi ogw'enkizo mu kulwanirira ameefuga ga Uganda okuva ku Bungereza mu 1962. Era yafuuka Ssaabaminisita wa Uganda mu nkolagana eyali awamu n'ekibiina kya Kabaka Yekka ekyali kikulemberwa Kabaka Mutesa II eyaweebwa elinnya ly'obwa Pulezidenti. Olw'okutaataganyizibwa kwa Mutesa mu 1964 Bannayuganda lw'ebabulwa emiluka gyaabwe mu ffedero saako n'okwetaba mu mivuyo gy'okunyaga zaabu, Obote yamugya mu bukulembeze mu 1966 era n'eyerangilira nga Pulezidenti, nagunjaawo omulembe gw'okufugisa obumbula n'ekibiina kya UPC nga ky'ekibiina kyokka ekitongole. Kigambibwa nti Obote yeyatandikwo enkola za nakalyakw'ani, era nga zaaletera eggwanga okubonaabona olw'enguzi n'ebbula ly'emmere.

Yagyibwaako ab'ekisinde ekya tumibwa coup d'état ekya Idi Amin mu 1971, wabula yaddamu n'alondebwa mu 1980 oluvanyuma lw'okugyibwaako kwa Amin mu 1979. Obukulembezebwe bwakomekerezebwa oluvanyuma lw'olutalo kanywa musaayi olwa Ugandan Bush War, nga mu kaseera kano yagyibwako ekisinde eky'okubiri mu 1985 nga kimusindiikiriza okumala obulamu bwe bwonna mu buwanganguse.

Obulamu bwe obw'asooka[kyusa | edit source]

Milton Obote yazaalibwa ku kyalo kye Akokoro mu Disitulikiti y'e Apac mu mambuka ga Uganda. Yali mwana wakusatu mu baana omwenda [1] ab'omukulu w'ekika kya Oyima clan mu Lango. Y'atandika emisomo gye mu 1940 mu ssomero ly'abamisani mu Lira, oluvanyuma nagenda ku Gulu Junior Secondary School, Busoga College era n'amaliririza ku ssetendekero wa Makerere University. N'ekigendererwa eky'okusoma amateeka essomo elitaaliyo ku Yunivasite, Obote yasalawo okutwala essomo lya atisi nga muno mwalimu Olungereza ne jjogulafe.[2] At Makerere, Obote yayongera okw'olesa obukugu bwe mu kwogera eri abantu, era oluvanyuma yalekulira ng'afunye ekifo aw'okusomera amateeka mu Bulaaya nga newankubadde tekwavugirirwa Gavumenti eyaliko ebiseera ebyo.[3] Yakolera mu Buganda ekiri mu maserengeta ga Uganda nga tannagenda Kenya, gy'eyakolera ng'omuzimbi mu Kkampuni y'abazimbi.

Ng'ali mu Kenya, Obote yeetaba ku mugendo ogwali ogw'okuleeta obw'etwaze mu ggwanga. Lw'okudda kwe mu Uganda mu 1956, y'egatta ku kibiina ky'ebyobufuzi ekya Uganda National Congress (UNC), era yalondebwa ku kakiiko akabaga amateeka mu 1957.[4] Mu 1959, ekibiina kya UNC ky'ekutulamu ebiwayi bibiri ng'ekimu wansi w'obukulembeze bwa Obote kyakyusibwa okuva mu Uganda People's Union n'ekituumibwato Uganda People's Congress (UPC).[5]

Obote yakiikirira ekibiina kya UPC mu ttabamiruka wa Ugandan Constitutional Conference, eyategekebwa ku Lancaster House mu 1961, wamu ne munnabyabufuzi munne A. G. Mehta.[6] Ttabamiruka yategekebwa Gavumenti Birigi okusobola okutema empenda eri ameefuga ga Uganda.[6]

Emirimu gy'obwa ssabaminisita[kyusa | edit source]

Mu nteekateeka z'okulonda oluvanyuma lw'amefuga.Obote y'assawo enkolagana n'ekibiina ky'obwakabaka bwa Buganda ekya Kabaka Yekka. Ebibiina by'ombi by'alina omuwendo ogusinga mu Paalamenti era Obote n'afuuka Sabaminisita mu 1962. Ekifo y'akifuna mu Gwokuna nga 25 1962, nga yalondebwa ow'ekitiibwa Walter Coutts, eyali Gavana-jenero wa Uganda. Omwaka ogw'addirira, ekifo kya Gavana Jenero ky'asikizibwa n'ekitiibwa ky'obwa Pulezidenti era ng'ono yali w'akulondebwa Paalamenti. Mutesa, Kabaka wa Buganda, yafuuka Pulezidenti nga Obite ye Ssabaminisita kamala byonna.[2]

Okuv ku kkono okudda ku ddyo: Grace Ibingira, Obote, ne John Kakonge mu 1962

Mu Gusooka 1964, olutalo lw'abalukawo mu Balakisi y'e Jinja ekibuga ekikulu eky'okubiri era amaka agasooka ag'eggye lya Uganda. Waaliwo entalo entala bbiri ezaali z'efaananyirizaako luno mu bitundu ebirala eby'oBuvanjuba bwa Afrika, ensi z'onsatule z'asaba obuyambi bw'amaggye okuva mu ggye ly'aba Biriji. Nga tebannatuuka, Obote yatuma Minisiter omubeezi ow'ebyokwerinda Felix Onama okuteesaganya n'abayeekera. Onama y'akwatibwa ng'omuwanbe n'akkiriziganya n'okusaba kw'abwe omwali, okwongeza emisaala gy'abannamaggye, n'okulinyisa amadaala g'abasirikale nga mwemwaali ne Pulezidenti ow'ekiseera ekyali kigenda okujja Idi Amin.[2] Mu 1965, bannaKenya bayawulibwa okuva mu bifo by'obufuzi mu Gavumenti nga kino ky'awerekerwako okugibwa kwaabwe mu Uganda mu 1969, wansi w'okulungamizibwa kwa Obote.[7]

Nga Ssaabaminisita, Obote yeetaba mu was implicated in a kunyagulula golodi, wamu ne Idi Amin, omumyuka w'omudumizi w'eggye lya Uganda. Paalamenti bw'eyasaba okunoonyereza ku Obote saako n'okugobebwa kwa Amin, yagyawo Ssemateeka w'eggwanga neyerangirira ku bwa Pulezidentu mu Gwokusatu 1966, nga y'ewa obuyinza bwonna ng'akozesa enfuga emanyikiddwa nga state of emergency. Ba mmemba abawerako ku Kabinenti ye, abaali abkulembeze b'ebiwayi ebyali bimuwakanya era n'ebasibibwa awataali kuwozesebwa. Obote yayanukula n'alulumba lwa mundu ku Lubiri lwa Mutesa, ekyakomekerera ne Muteesa okuddukira mu buwanganguse.[8] Mu 1967, ouyinza bwa Obote bwanwezebwa Ssemateeka omugya bw'eyayisibwa Paalamenti nga agyawo enfuga ya Ffedero era nga agunjaawo obuyinza bwa Pulezidenti obujjudde.[9]

Obukulembeze bwe obw'asooka nga Pulezidenti[kyusa | edit source]

Nga 19 Ogwekkuminebiri 1969, waaliwo obutujju obwakolebwa okugezaako okutta Obote. bweyali nga avva mu taabamiluka w'ekibiina kya UPC owa buli mwaka e Lugogo mu kisaawe mu Kampala, Mohamed Sebaduka yakuba Pulezidenti essasi limu. Essasi ly'akuba Obote mu bwenyi era n'elimenya amannyo abiri neliyita wakati mu ttama. Bbasitoola ya Sebaduka yakyankalana era omutujju omulala Yowana Wamala, n'amusuulira guluneedi wabula yagaana okwabika. Sebaduka yakubibwa abakuumi ba Obote, naye abatujju bombi baatolokera mu kavuyo akaali kakoleddwa obulumbaganyi. Abakugu mu kunonyereza bakwata abatujju bombi era ba mmemba b'ekibiina ekyali kiwakanya Gavumenti ekya Democratic Party baalumiriza eyali Ssabaminisita Benedicto Kiwanuka okuluka olukwe olwo.[10] Oluvanyuma lw'akasambattuko, ebibiina by'obufuzi by'onna eby'ali biwakanya Gavumenti byonna byawerebwa, nga kireka Obote ng'omulembeza yekka. Embeera eyakajagalalo yamala ebanga eliwerako era bannabyabufuziabawerako baakwatibwa era n'ebasibibwa mayisa awatali kuwozesebwa mu maaso g'omulamuzi. Omulembe gwa Obote gw'atugumbula, n'egubonyabonya era n'okutulugunya abantu. Poliisi ye ey'ekyama eyali manyikiddwa nga General Service Unit eyali ekulemberwa kizibwewe, yeyalina obuvunanyizibwa ku okutulugunya kwonna.[7]

Mu1969–70, Obote yafulumya obutabo obuwerako obwagenderera okulaga enkola ye mu by'obufuzi n'ebyenfuna. The Common Man's Charter lye ly'ali ekkunganiro ly'enkolaye eya nnakalya kw'ani eyagya okumanyibwa nga Move to the Left. Gavumenti yali etwala ebitundu 60 ku buli kikumi ku bitongole by'obwannanyini ne bbanka mu ggwanga lyonna mu 1970. Ku mulembe gwa Obote, omuze gw'enguzi gw'abalukawo mu linnya lya "nnakalyak kw'ani".[7] Ebbula ly'emmere ly'aletera ebbeeyi y'emmere okwekanama. Obote okugobwa aBayindi abasuubuzi kw'aleetera emiwendo gy'ebintu okulinya.[7]

Gavumenti ya Israeli yali mu kutendeka Poliisi ya Uganda wamu n'amaggye nga babawa eby'okulwanisa eri Anyanya mu maserengeta ga Sudan abeetaba mu lutalo olw'amanyikibwa nga guerilla war ne Gavumenti ya Sudan. Gavumenti ya Obote yagyayo obuyambi eri abayeekera era n'ekwata omutujju wa Bujilimaani eyali ayitibwa Steiner era nebamuwaayo mu Sudan okuvunaanibwa. Ebikolwa byonna tebyasanyusa Gavumenti ya Israeli.[11]

Mu Gusooka 1971, Obote ab'amaggye b'amugya mu ntebe bweyali mu lukyala lwe eSingapore mu ttabamiruka waCommonwealth conference, era Amin n'afuuka Pulezidenti. Mu myaka ebiri ng'okuwamba tekunnabaawo, enkolagana ya Obote n'aba mawanga g'ebweru yali yagootaana. Kigambibwa nti amawanga g'ebweru gaali g'amanyi ku lukwe era nga agamu g'awagira buterevu okuwamba kwa Gavumenti ya Obote.[12][13] Gavumenti ya Israeli y'etaba butereevu mu nteekateeka, n'okuteeka mu nkola okuwambibwa kwa Gavumenti ya Obote. Baakozesa eby'okulwanyisa eby'omulembe nebateeka n'emisanvu mu kkubo naddala wakati mu kibuga ekikulu. Okuva mu nsonda emu ennekusifu, "Baali bakulabibwako buli wamu."[14] Okugwa kwa Gavumenti ya Obote kwajagulizibwa bannayuganda abawerako.[7]

Omulundi ogw'asooka mu buwanganguse era ne by'eyakola okulwana okudda mu buyinza[kyusa | edit source]

Amangu ddala nga y'akamanya ku by'okuwamba Gavumenti ye, Obote yaddukira mu Nairobi okuzimba eggye mu Uganda okuwakanya obukulembeze bwa Amin. Wabula obuyinza bw'abannakenya bw'amulemesa okuwuliza abagobelezibe era n'eggye eryali lisigaddewo ly'alemererwa okuzaayo omuliro. Eggye lya Amin ly'asobola okumalawo eggye lya Obote. Obote yagaana okuwanika era naagenda mu Tanzania gy'eyafuna obuwagizi obuwerako.Pulezidenti waTanzania Julius Nyerere baalina enkolagana ne Obote naddala ku nkola ya nnakalya kw'ani. Gavumenti ya Tanzania ne Somalia he Tanzanian baasooka nebateekateeka okuyamba ku Obote okweddiza obuyinza nga bayingira Uganda okuyita mu Kagera Salient. Enkola eno teyateekebwa mu nkola nga aba Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai baategeeza ebibiina eby'ali by'etabyemu nti yali ayingirira lutalo lw'amaggye ng'ate aba Tanzania balina okutya nti amawanga g'ebweru gandi etaba lutalo nga gali ku luuyi lwa Amin. Mu kaseera kano, abantu abaali bakkiririza mu Obote baali bamaze okusanyizibwaawo era Nyerere n'awa Obote ebifo ebitendekebwaamu mu Tanzania okuteekateeka egye ery'amaanyi mu buwanganguse. Ebyo nga bizze ku bbali, abawagizi ba Obote enkumi n'enkumi ((omw'ali n'abasirikale) abatolokera mu Sudan nga Gavumenti y'ayo yeyama okubawa enkambi omw'okutendekebwa. Okuva mu mwezi Gwokusatu 1971, Obote yazimba eggye ly'abayeekera era nebadda e Sudan.

Wabula amaanyi Obote g'eyassaamu ng'ali mu buwanganguse g'afa ttogge olw'okubulwa obuwagizi okuva mu bannayuganda nga n'ebibiina by'ali biwakanya Gavumenti ya Amin byonna by'ali by'ewaayo okuwagira Amino. N'ekibiina kye ekya UPC ky'ali kyasalawo okwekutulamu okuva ku Obote. Era waaliwo embeera y'okusindikirizibwa okuva mu b'ekika kye wamu n'abo abaali balwanira obuyinza mu nkambi ya Obote nga banyomoola okutendekebwa. Okwongerezaako, Gaumenti ya Sudan yassa omukono ku ndagaano ne Amin mu 1972 ng'eno yali egenderera okugoba Obote n'abagoberezibe era nga kino ky'abanafuya nnyo. Mu byonna, Obote yalemererwa okukungaanya abalwanyi abasukkka 1,000 okulwanyisa Gavumenti ya Amin era nga abasinga tebaalina kutendekebwa kwa kikugu. Obukuubagana we bw'eyongera wakati wa Tanzania ne Uganda nga buno bw'aviirako okulwanagana ku nsalo, Nyerere oluvanyuma y'asumulula olukwe olw'ali lutekedwatekeddwa okulumbagana Gavumenti ya Amin. N'abo abaamanya ku buwanganguse bwa Obote ng'ekibinja kya [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoweri%20Museveni Yoweri Museveni], n'abo beegata ku lulumba. Olutalo lw'okulumbaga Uganda mu 1972 olw'akolebwa abayeekera ba Obote, lw'ali lw'attabu nnyo ng'amaggye mangi agaali mukutendekebwa gasanyizibwaawo. Okulemererwa kuno kw'ateekawo obunkenke eri eggye lya Amin. Ku luuyi olulala Obote y'avunaana Museveni olw'okulimba nti yali uyakwasagganya emikutu egy'ekyama egy'ali mu Maserengeta ga Uganda. Omukutu guno gw'ali gw'akugenderera okulinyisa emiwendo gy'abantu babulijjo wabula enkola eno n'etatuukirira era eky'aviirako okuwangulwa. Obote teyasonyiwa Museveni olw'ekyo era ky'aviirako enjawukana mu masekkati gaabwe. Olulumba luno lw'aviirako Gavumenti ya Tanzania okuggalawo enkambi z'abayeekera era nenyeyama obutaddamu kuwagira bayeekera. Obote ne bammemba be abaali bamwetolodde, beemulula mpola n'ebaddukira mu Dar es Salaam ng'eyo abasinga gy'ebatandikira okukola ng'abasomesa, bannamateeka, abasawo n'emirimu emirala mingi. ng'ate abalwanyi be abalala b'atwalibwa e Tabora okufuuka abalimi ba kaawa.

Gavumenti ya Tanzania yategeeza Obote nti yali y'akwongera okuwangira enteeketeeka z'abwe ez'obutujju bwe baba nga bakusigala nga bakolera mu nkukutu nga eby'endagaano eya sayiningibwa oluvannyuma lw'okuwangulwa. N'olwensonga eyo,Obote y'ekuumira mu kyaama nga bwayongera amaanyi mu kulwanirira okwezza obuyinza. Nga bw'atasobola kugya ssente mu nsi z'ebweru ng'akyali Pulezidenti, Obote yawangalira ku ssente za Gavumenti ya Tanzania. Teyaddamu kwetaba mu mboozi yonna ey'akafubo, era obudde bwe obusinga y'abeera nga mu maka agaalia okumpi n'amaka ga Nyerere ag'ekyama. Abakungu ba Tanzania baatandika okumuyita "Pulezidenti" era oluvanyuma "Mzee". Okugyako obutalabikalabika bwe mu lujjude, Obote n'obusungu obungi y'aluka olukwe okuwamba Amin: Yateekawo egye ly'abayekera ery'abalwanyi 100 ery'akolanga obulumbaganyi ku Uganda nga bayita Kenya, era n'akola "eggye lye ery'okumazzi" ery'amaato mukaaga agaali ganyagulula emmwanyi ku enyanja Nalubaale okuvugirira ebikolwa bye eby'obufuzi n'ebya maggye. eggye eryo era ly'akola omukutu mu Uganda. Enteekateeka zino z'akwasibwa abamu ku bagoberezibe b'eyali y'esiga omwali David Oyite-Ojok. Obote y'asuubira okunyomola obukulembeze bwa Amin okutuusa lwaddamu okulumbagana Amin wamu n'abawagizi be ob'omubuwanganguse mu Tanzania. Amaanyige n'obuyeekera bwe tebyavaamu bibala, ekisinde kye teky'asobola kusaanyawo bagoberezi ba Amin ab'enkizo era y'abulwa obuwagizi mu Bannayuganda abasinga. Obote y'asigala tamanyikiddwa mu bitundu ebisinga ebya Uganda era n'abo abaali bawakanya gavumenti ya Amin baali tebaagala Obote kudda mu buyinza.

Obukulembeze bwe obw'okubiri nga Pulezidenti[kyusa | edit source]

  Mu 1979, Idi Amin yagibwa mu buyinza amagye ga Tanzania nga galimu bannayuganda abaali mu buwanganguse. Mu 1980, Uganda yali mu bukulembeze obumanyikiddwa nga Presidential Commission. Mu kaseera k'akalulu ka 1980, ssentebe w'akakiiko yali w'akulusegere nnyo wa Obote, Paulo Muwanga. Muwanga yaliko Pulezidenti wa Uganda mu mankweetu okuva nga 12–20 Ogw'okutaano 1980, ng'omu ku bakulembeze ba Uganda abaafugira ebbanga entono mu kiseera Amin weyagibwa mu bukulembeze n'emunteekateeka y'akakiiko ka Pulezidenti. Abakulembeze abalala baali Yusuf Lule ne [./Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrey%20Binaisa Godfrey Binaisa].

Okulonda kwa1980 kw'awangulwa ekibiina ky'ebyebufuzi ekya Uganda People's Congress (UPC) eky'ali ekya Obote. Wabula ebibiina eby'ali bivuganya ekibiina kya UPC baalina okukkiriza nti akalulu kaalimu gozilini mungi nnyo era n'ekiviirako okubalukawo kw'olutalo lw'ekiyeekera olw'abekibiina kya Yoweri Museveni National Resistance Army (NRA) n'ebibinja by'abannamagye ebiwerako. Obote y'alina n'ekitiibwa kya Minisita w'ebyensimbi.[15]

Mu 1983, Gavumenti ya Obote y'ayanjula enkola eyatuumibwa Bonanza, olutalo lw'atwalimu enkumi n'enkumi z'abantu eky'akendeeza ku muwendo gw'abantu.[16] Okunenyezebwa kwonna kw'ateekebwa ku bantu b'omumambuka ga Uganda olw'okuwagira ebikolwa bya Ssaabaminisita era nga kino ky'ayongeza ekiluyi eky'aliwo mu masekkati g'ebitundu by'eggwanga ebyenjawulo.[16] Ky'ateberezebwa nti abantu wakati wa 100,000 ne 500,000 bebattibwa mu lutalo lwa Obote olwa Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA) n'abayeekera b'omu nsiko.[17][18][19]

Nga 27 Ogwomusanvu 1985, Obote era gagyibwa mu buyinza. Mu 1971, abaduumizi be ab'amagye be bamugya mu buyinza mu lutalo olw'atuumibwa coup d'état; nga ku mulundu guno omuduumizi yali Buligediya Bazilio Olara-Okello ne Genelo Tito Okello. Abaami bombi bakulembera eggwanga mu nkola ey'ekigyasi naye oluvanyuma lw'emyezi egy'okwekalakaasa, eggye lya Museveni erya NRA ly'eddiza obuyinza eri eggwanga. Era mu mwezi gwomusanvu 1985, ekisinde ky'ensi yonna ekirwanirira eddembe ly'obuntu ky'ateebereza nti Gavumenti ya Obote y'eyali evunanyizibwa ku kutibwa kw'abantu b'abulijjo abasoba mu 300,000 okw'etoloola Uganda yonna. Okutulugunyizibwa kw'abantu kwekyakira nnyo mu masekkati ga Uganda mu kifo ekimamnyikiddwa nga ekya Luweero Triangle.[20]

Okufa kwe mu buwanganguse[kyusa | edit source]

Oluvanyuma lw'okugyibwa mu buyinza omulundi ogw'okubiri, Obote yaddukira mu Kenya n'oluvanyuma Zambia. Okumala emyaka emitonotono, olugambo lw'ayitingana nti Obote yali wa kudda mu by'obufuzi bya Uganda. Mu Gwomunaana 2005, Obote yalangirira ekigendererwa kye eky'okuva ku bukulembeze bw'ekibiina kya UPC.[21] Mu Gwomwenda 2005, ky'agambibwa nti Obote yali w'akudda mu Uganda ng'omwaka tegunnaggwako.[22] Nga 10 Ogwekkumi 2005, Obote y'afa olw'ekirwadde ky'ensigo mu ddwaliro lya Johannesburg, mu South Africa.[23]

Entaana ya Milton Obote

Milton Obote yaziikibwa mu kitiibwa mu nkola emanyikiddwa nga state funeral, nga yaliko n'omukulembeze w'eggwanga Pulezidenti Museveni, mu kibuga kya Uganda ekikulu Kampala mu Gwekkumi 2005, eky'ali eky'ekyewuunyo ennyo era n'okwesiima anti Obote ne Museveni baali tebalima kambugu.[24] Ebibiina ebirala omw'ali bakawonawo b'eLuwero abaali abaganda, basunguwala nnyo elw'ekitibwa ekyakolebwa mu kuziikibwa kwa Obote..[25]

Yaleka omukyala era n'abaana bataano. Nga 28 Ogwekkuminogumu 2005, mukyalawe Miria Obote yalondebwa okubeera omukulembeze w'ekibiina kya UPC.[26]

Ebijuliziddwamu[kyusa | edit source]

  1. https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/423934/Milton-Obote
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/96666
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20070420171359/http://monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/obote/ob04072.php
  4. http://www.upcparty.net/upcparty/roots_adhola.htm
  5. https://www.ugstandard.com/inside-the-life-of-president-milton-obote/
  6. 6.0 6.1 http://worldcat.org/oclc/14210279
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-85065-066-9
  8. https://www.independent.co.ug/last-word-obotes-1966-musevenis-2016/
  9. https://www.newvision.co.ug/news/1515957/history-obote-president
  10. https://books.google.com/books?id=yURMdAfadS4C&pg=PA67
  11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86543-357-7
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Ivan_Smith
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Ivan_Smith
  14. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-86543-357-7
  15. https://www.newvision.co.ug/news/1010258/uganda-eur-finance-ministers-independence
  16. 16.0 16.1 https://doi.org/10.1093%2Foxfordjournals.afraf.a008002
  17. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2005-10-11-oboteobit_x.htm
  18. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-56802-195-9
  19. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/uganda/
  20. http://www.blackstarnews.com/global-politics/others/notes-on-concealment-of-genocide-in-uganda.html
  21. https://web.archive.org/web/20090214004610/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-08/28/content_3412655.htm
  22. http://english.people.com.cn/200509/02/eng20050902_206125.html
  23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4328834.stm
  24. https://www.theguardian.com/worldlatest/story/0,1280,-5358413,00.html
  25. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Monitor_(Uganda)
  26. http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/uhdecide/decide12211.php

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