Ebyafaayo bya Uganda

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Ebyafaayo bya Uganda birimu ebyafaayo by'abantu abaali babeera mu kitundu kati ekiyitibwa Uganda mu kiseera nga tewannateekebwawo ggwanga kati eriyitibwa Republic of Uganda, wamu n'ebyafaayo bya Uganda n'eggwanga okuva bwe lyatondebwawo. Obujulizi okuva mu banoonyereza bulaga nti abantu baatandika dda okubeera mu kitundukino waakiri mu myaka nga 50,000 emabega. Ebibira bya Uganda byagenda bisaanyizibwawo mu mpolampola ng'abantu bakolawo ennimiri n'amalundiro g'ebisolo by'awaka nga kyasinga kukolebwa okusinga abantu Aboogera ennimi za Babantu. Mu 1894, Uganda lyafuuka ettwale lya Gavumenti ya Bungereza eya British Empire, era mu 1962 Obwakabaka bw'Abagereza (United Kingdom) bwawa Uganda obwetwaze nga bufuula Sir Edward Muteesa Walugembe Pulezidenti eyasookera ddala mu kiseera kye kimu nga ye Kabaka wa Buganda. Idi Amin yaggyako Milton Obote mu 1971 okufuuka omufuzi wa Uganda, ekifo kye yalimu okutuusa lwe baamukunkumua omukono mu kibya mu 1979 mu lutalo olwaliwo wakati wa Gavumenti ya Uganda ne Bannayuganda abaayambibwako Gavumenti y'e Tanzania (Uganda-Tanzania War). Oluvannyuma lw'abakulembeze abalala bangi, Yoweri Museveni yawamba obuyinza mu 1986 era akulembedde Uganda okuva olwo n'okutuusa leero.

Ekiseera ng'abafuzi b'amatwale tebannajja[kyusa | edit source]

  Okusinziira ku bujulizi bw'abanoonyereza bulaga nti mu kitundu kati ekiyitibwa Uganda mwalimu abantu abaali bakibeeramu okuva eyo mu myaka gya 50,000, n'okutuuka mu myaka gya 100,000 nga bwe kiragibwa mu mayinja ge baakozesanga mu kunoonyereza kwa Acheulean stone tools ebyaggibwa mu bitundu ebyetoolodde ennyanja Nalubaale (Lake Victoria), ng'ebimu byaggibwa mu kiwonvu ky'omugga Kagera, mu kitundu kya Nsonezi.[1]

Abalimi bano abaagenda basaanyaawo ensiko n'ebibira mu mpolampola bateeberezebwa okubeera mu luse lwa Babantu (Bantu-speaking people), ng'okusaasaana kwebwe kwabuna ettundutundu ly'ensi eziri wansi w'eddungu Sahara (sub-Saharan Africa). Baalundanga n'embuzi, enkoko era kiteeberezebwa nti baalundanga n'ente entonotono mu myaka nga 400 nga Yesu tannajja. Amagezi ge baalina mu kulima n'okulunda nga beeyambisa ebintu bye baaweesanga gaabayamba okusaanyaawo ensiko ne basobola okulima emmere gye baalyanga ne beeyongera obungi. Baaganda basengula abantu abalala abaalinga abayizzi be baasangangawo, nga baasengukanga ne baddukira mu nsozi ez'ewala.[2]

Mu kyasa ekyasooka ekyasooka era ekiyinza okuba nga kye kyasa ekyokuna nga Yesu tannabaawo mu Bugwanjuba bwa Tanzania, abantu ab'olubu lwa Babantu (Bantu-speaking metallurgists) baali bagundidde mu kuweesa nga bakola ebintu ebikozesebwa mu byobulimi nga babikola mu mayinja ga carbon steel. Newankubadde enkulaakulana ez'engeri eno zaali zigenda mu maaso mu kitundu ekiriko ensalo za Uganda eziri mu Maserengeta g'Obugwanjuba bwa Ugandan, ekyobugagga kya iron kyali kisimwa era nga kiweesebwamu ebintu bingi.[2]

Uganda nga ettwale (1894–1962)[kyusa | edit source]

  Mu myaka gya 1890, abakozi abali eyo mu 32,000 okuva mu ttwale lya Bungereza ery'e Buyindi baasindikibwa okujja mu East Africa nga bazze okukola oluguudo lw'eggaali y'omukka olwa Uganda Railway.[3] Abasinga ku Bayindi abaali bakyali abalamu we lwaggweera baddayo ewaabwe naye abalala abawera 6,724 baasalawo okusigala mu East Africa ng'oluguudoluwedde.[4] Mu kiseera ekyo abamu baafuuka basuubuzi ne bafuuka basaale mu kusuubula n'okutereka ppamba.[5]

Okuva mu 1900 okutuuka muto 1920, Ekirwadde kya Kasumagizi (sleeping sickness epidemic) kyagwira abantu b'omu Bukiikaddyo bwa Uganda ku mbalama z'omu Bukiikakono bw'ennyanja Nalubaale, ne kitta abantu abasukka mu 250,000.[6]

Uganda nga yaakafuna obwetwaze (1962–71)[kyusa | edit source]

  Obwakabaka bwa Bungereza bwawa Uganda obwetwaze mu 1962, newankubadde okulonda okw'omunda okwa Gavumenti eyalina okudda mu bukulembeze oluvannyuma lwa Gavumenti enkuumi kwaliwo nga 1 Ogwokusatu, 1961. Benedicto Kiwanuka owa Democratic Party ye yasooka okulondebwa okubeera akulira Baminisita (chief minister). Milton Obote yalondebwa okubeera Ssaabaminisita wa Uganda mu Gwokuna, 1962 olwo Ugandan'efuuka ensi eya Lipaabuliika mu Gwekkumi, 1962 kyokka n'esigaza ekifo kyayo eky'oba erimu ku mawanga agaaliko wansi w'obufuzi bw'Obwakabaka bwa Bungereza.

Mu myaka egyaddirira,baabalukawo obutakkaanya era ekyaddirira mu Gwokubiri gwa 1966, Milton Obote, eyali Ssaabaminisita yaggyawo Ssemateeka eyaliwo ne yeddiza obuyinza bwa Gavumenti bwonna n'aggyawo ebifo okuli ekya Pulezidenti n'omumyuka we. Mu Gwomwenda, 1967 yalangirira nti Uganda yali efuuse Lipaabuliiki ne yeewa obuyiza Obwa Pulezidenti, n'aggyawo n'obufuzi obw'ensikirano bwonna mu Uganda.

Uganda ku mulembe gwa Idi Amin (1971–79)[kyusa | edit source]

  Oluvannyuma lw'amagye okuwamba obuyinza nga 25 Ogwoluberyeberye 1971, Obote yafuumuulwa okuva mu ntebe y'Obwapulezidenti, olwo Nnakyemalira Idi Amin ne yeddiza obuyinza. Amin yafuga Uganda ng'akozesa amagye okumala emyaka 8[7] n'atta abantu bangi mu ggwanga lino nga ky'afa kwe kweremeza mu buyinza.

Mu 1972, ng'ayita mu kye yayita Okuddiza Abafirika ebyabwe (Africanization policy), Amin yagoba Abayindi abasukka mu 40,000 ne bafuluma Uganda ku paasipooti y'Obwakabaka bwa Bungereza. Abayindi abali eyo mu 7,000 baayitibwa ne baweebwa obubudamu mu Canada; Wabula abakkiriza omukisa guno baali batono era okubala abantu okwa 2006 kwalaga nti abantu abalina ensibuko mu Uganda baali 3,300 e Canada. Okufiirwa Abayingi bano abaali empagi luwaga mu byobusuubuzi bya Uganda kyaleka ng'ebyenfuna bya Uganda bataaguuse.[8]

Emyaka omunaana egy'obufuzi bwa Amin gyalimu okusereba mu byenfuna, okwawukana mu bantu, n'okulinnyirira eddembe ly'obuntu. Abacholi n'Abalango abasangibwa mu Bukiikakkono bwa Uganda be bamu ku baasinga okutulugunyizibwa ku mulembe gwa Amin nga balangibwa okuwagira Obote mu kiseera we yabeerera mu bukulembeze.[9] Mu 1978, ekitongole ekinoonyereza ekyaInternational Commission of Jurists baazuula nti Bannayuganda abasoba mu 100,000 be battibwa mu kiseera amaiini we yabeerera mu bukulembeze. Abamu nno baagamba nti baawera n'abantu 300,000 — okugeza mu firimu eyazannyibwa mu 2006 eyitibwa The Last King of Scotland, eyalaga ebimu ku bikolwa eby'obwannakyemalira Amin bye yakola. Ebikolwa bya Amin byawandiikibwako ne mu kitabo ekyafuluma mu 1977, ekiyitibwa A State of Blood, ekyawandiikibwa Henry Kyemba eyali omu ku Baminisita ba Amin, nga yakiwandiika amaze okudduka n'afuluma Uganda.

Obufuzi bwa Amin bwatuuka ku nkomerero oluvannyuma lw'olutalo olwa Uganda-Tanzania War, amagye ga Tanzania agaayambibwako Bannayuganda abaali baawang'angukirayo bwe baalumba Uganda. Akakuubagano kano kaatandika na butakkaanya okumpi n'ensalo ya Uganda ne Tanzania nga kigambibwa nti abamu ku Bannayuganda abaali baawang'anguka baali bakubye enkambi mu Tanzania okuliraana ensalo ya Mutukula. Kino kyanyiiza Amin n'asindika eggye lya Uganda ne liyingira Tanzania okubakuba. Mu Gwekkumi ogwa 1978, amagye ga Tanzania aga Tanzanian Armed Forces nga gawagirwa Bannayuganda abaali e Tanzania gaayanukula ekikolwa kya Amin era ekyaddirira kwe kulumba Uganda. Amagye ga Amin gaali gayambibwako ag'e Libya. Nga 11 Ogwokuna 1979, ekibuga kya Uganda ekikulu, Kampala kyawambibwa Amin n'adduka n'abajaasi be abaali basigaddewo, ekiwummulo mu Libya.

Uganda okuva mu 1979[kyusa | edit source]

  Oluvannyuma lw'okuggyako Amin, eggye lya Uganda National Liberation Front lyatodawo Gavumenti ey'ekiseera ng'ekulirwa Pulofeesa Yusuf Lule nga Pulezidenti neJeremiah Lucas Opira nga ye Ssaabawandiisi owa UNLF. Gavumenti eno yakozesa enkola y'okuteekawo Minisitule ez'enjawulo mwe yakulembereranga n'eteekawo n'akakiiko akeefaanaanyirizaako Paalamenti aka National Consultative Commission (NCC). NCC ne Kabineeti ya Lule baabuna eggwanga nga beebuuza ku bantu ku ngeri gye baali baagala eggwanga lyabwe likulemberwe. Mu Gwomukaaga 1979, oluvannyuma lw'obutakkaanya obwaliwo ku buyinza bwa Pulezidenti, Akakiiko ka NCC kaggyako Lule ne kamusikiza Godfrey Binaisa.

Obutakkaanya bwe bweyongera ku buyinza bwa Pulezidenti ow'ekiseera we bulina okukoma, ne Binaisa yamaamulwako mu Gwokutaano, 1980. Ebyaddirira kwe kuteekawo akakiiko k'amagye akaali kakulemberwa Paulo Muwanga. Okulonda kwa bonna okwaliwo mu Gwekkumineebiri, 1980 kwakomyawo UPC mu buyinza wansi wa Milton Obote, nga Muwanga ye Mumyuka wa Pulezidenti. Obote bwe yali mu buyinza, ebitongole by'ebyokwerinda baasukka okutulugunya abantu n'okulinnyirira eddembe ly'obuntu. Kino baakikola bagezaako okufuuza mu kiseera ekyo abaali abayeekera ba Yoweri Museveni, baatugumbula abantu abitundu bingi ne bisigala matongo, okusingira ddala mu bitundu by'e Luwero, ekiri mu Bukiikakkono bwa Kampala.

Olutalo luno olwatuumibwa "bush war", lwakulemberwa abayeekera ba National Resistance Army (NRA), wansi w'obukulembeze bwa Yoweri Museveni, n'ebibinja by'abayeekera ebirala nga Federal Democratic Movement ekyali kikulemberwa Andrew Kayiira n'ekirala ekyali kikulemerwa John Nkwanga. Mu kiseera ekyo amagye ga Gavumenti eyali ekulirwa Obote katta nnyo abantu mu ngeri ey'ekikungo naddala abataali na bamukwatammundu.[10]

Obote yaggyibwako nga 27, Ogwomusanvu 1985, ekibinja kya bannamagye ekyali kikulemberwa okusinga Abacholi nga kikulemberwa Lt. Gen. Bazilio Olara-Okello, bwe kyawamba Kampala ne kirangirira Gavumenti ya Bannamagye. Obote yadduka n'awang'angukira mu ggwanga lya Zambia. Obukulembeze obupya obwali bukulemberwa eyali akulira amagye Gen. Tito Okellobwatandikawo enteeseganya n'abayeekera ba Museveni ne yeeyama okukuuma eddembe ly'obuntu, okukomya okwesasuza wakati w'amawanga ag'enjawulo, n'okuteekawo okulonda okw'amazima n'obwenkanya. Mu kiseera ekyo, okulinnyirira eddembe ly'obuntu kweyongera amagye ga Okello bwe gaalumba abantu mu kugezaako okukomya abo bonna abaali bawa abayeekera ba NRA.

Ekitundu ky'Abacholi mu Bukiikakkono bwa Uganda

Enteesaganya wakati wa Gavumenti ya Okello n'abayeekera ba NRA zaagenda mu maaso mu kibuga Nairobi ng'omwaka gwa 1985 guggwaako, ng'eyali Pulezidenti wa Kenya, Daniel arap Moi ayagala waggweewo okulwanagana, Uganda ekole Gavumenti ng'abalwana beegasse. Newankubadde bakkirirziganya okukomya okulwanagana mu1985, abayeekera ba NRA tebaakikomya era baawamba Kampala oluvannyuma ne beddiza eggwanga lyonna mu Gwoluberyeberye 1986, ekyaviirako amagye ga Okello okudduka ne gafuluma eggwanga nga gayita mu Bukiikaddyo okutuusa e Sudan. Amagye ga Museveni gaateekawo Gavumenti era Museveni n'afuuka Pulezidenti.

Okuva lwe bajja mu buyinza, Gavumenti erimu akabondo k'ebyobufuzi akaatondebwawo Museveni n'abagoberezi be, aka National Resistance Movement (NRM oba kiyite "Movement"). Ekibiina kino kirwanyisizza nnyo okulinnyirira eddembe ly'obuntu eryatyoboolwanga Gavumenti ezaasooka, baateekawo eddembe ly'ebyobufuzi n'eddembe lya Bannamawulire, ne kireetan'enkola ez'okukyusa ebyenfuna by'eggwanga oluvannyuma lw'okwebuuza ku kibiina kya International Monetary Fund, World Bank, ne Gavumenti eziwa Uganda obuyambi.

Mu bitundu by'omu Bukiikakkono Acholiland, wabaddengayo abayeekera Gavumenti okuva mu 1986. Obubiina bw'abayeekera obw'Abacholi, omuli: Uganda People's Democratic Army n'aka Holy Spirit Movement. Akabinja kokka akakyasigaddewo ke ka Lord's Resistance Army akakulirwa Joseph Kony, akaagendanga nga kawamba abaana nga kabafuula abayeekera n'okubakozesa mu bikolwa eby'okwegadanga.

Mu 1996, Uganda yali nsaale mu kuwagira abaavuunika Gavumenti y'e Zaire eya Pulezidenti Mobutu Sese Seko mu lutalo lwa Congo olwasooka n'asikirwa Laurent-Désiré Kabila.

Ekyasa ekya 21[kyusa | edit source]

Wakati wa 1998 ne 2003, eggye lya Uganda lyetaba mu lutalo lwa Second Congo War mu Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Uganda ekyagenda mu maaso n'okuwagira obubinja bw'abayeekera nga aka Movement for the Liberation of Congo ne Rally for Congolese Democracy

Mu Gwomunaana 2005, Paalamenti yakuba akalulu ku kuggyawo ebisanja, ne kisobozesa Museveni okwesimbawo mu kisanja kye ekyokusatuto. Mu kalulu k'ekikungo akaakubibwa mu Gwomusanvu 2005, abalonzi ebitundu 92.5 baalonda nga bawagira okuteekawo enkola y'ebibiina by'ebyobufuzi, ne kiggyawo enkola y'omugendo. Kizza Besigye, eyali avuganya Museveni yakomawo okuva mu buwang'anguse mu Gwekkumi 2005 era yavuganya ku Bwapulezidenti mu kulonda kwa 2006. Mu mwezi gwe gumu, Obote yafiira mu South Africa. Museveni yawangula okulonda okwo okwaliyo mu Gwokubiri, 2006.

Mu 2009, etteeka erirwanyisa ebisiyaga erya Anti-Homosexuality Bill lyaleetebwa.[11] lyaleetebwa nga 13 Ogwekkumi, 2009 nga lyayanjulwa omubaka mu Paalamenti, David Bahati era ssinga lyali liyisiddwa nga bwe yalileeta lyandivuddeko okugobera ddala ebisiyaga mu Uganda ng'akwatibwa aba waakuttibwa.[12]

Nga 11 Ogwomusanvu 2010, abatujju ba al-Shabaab batta abantu74 mu Kampala. Nga 13 Ogwomwenda 2014, Abeebyokwerinda mu Uganda nga bayambibwako ekitongole ekikessi mu ggwanga wamu n'obuyambi okuva mu United States, baazuula era ne bayimiriza obutujju obwali bugenda okukolebwa mu Kampala. Baazuula obugoye abatujju bwe baali beetegese okwetulisizaako bbomu, bbomu enkolerere, n'ebyokulwanyisa ebirala, ne bakwata abantu 19 abateeberezebwa okubeera mu kkobaane lino mu kabinja ka al-Shabaab.[13][14][15] Olulumba luno lulabika nga lwali lutegekeddwa okubeerawo mu kiseera kye kimu n'olwali mu kibuga Nairobi mu kifo kya Westgate Mall.[16] Kyokka lwagwa butaka eri aba al-Shabaab.[13]

Okulonda kwa Uganda okw'awamuokwa 2016 kwaliyo nga 18 Ogwokubiri, 2016 okulonda Pulezidenti n'ababaka ba Paalamenti. Olunaku lw'okulonda lwalangirirwa ng'olunaku olw'okuwummula.[17][18] Ng'okulonda tekunnabaawo, Museveni yannyonnyola nti essira yali wa kulissa ku kutondawo kw'omukago gwa East African Federation ogugatta Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, ne South Sudan.[19] Mu Gwomwenda, 2018 waateekebwawo akakiiko akaabaga ssemateeka w'omukago guno era gwatandikibwawo,[20] nga ssemateeka w'omukago asuubirwa okuwandiikibwa mu 2021.[21]

Okulonda kwa Uganda okwa 2021 kwaggwa nga Pulezidenti Museveni nakwo akuwangudde n'atandika okukulembera ekisanja eky'omukaaga kyokka ab'ebibiina by'ensi yonna baavumirira obutabanguko obwakulimu omwali Gavumenti okunyigiriza abalonzi, okulinnyirira eddembe lya bannaawulire, okutulugunya abavuganya Gavumenti n'ebirala. Ebyava mu kulonda byalaga nti, Museveni yawangula n'ebitundu 58% n'addirira Bobi Wine n'ebitundu 35%. Abooludda oluvuganya tebakkaanya na byava mu kulonda nga bagamba nti waaliwo okubba obululu.[22] [23]

Laba na bino[kyusa | edit source]

Nota[kyusa | edit source]

 

Ebijuliziddwa[kyusa | edit source]

Ebiwandiiko ebirala[kyusa | edit source]

  • Amone, Charles, and Okullu Muura. "British Colonialism and the Creation of Acholi Ethnic Identity in Uganda, 1894 to 1962." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 42.2 (2014): 239-257.
  • Brett, E. A. Structural Adjustment in Uganda: 1987–1994 (Copenhagen: Centre for Development Research, 1995), economics.
  • Clarke, Ian, ed. Uganda - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture (2014) excerpt
  • Griffiths, Tudor. “Bishop Alfred Tucker and the Establishment of a British Protectorate in Uganda 1890-94.” Journal of Religion in Africa 31#1 2001, pp. 92–114. online.
  • Hansen, Holger Bernt. "Uganda in the 1970s: a decade of paradoxes and ambiguities". Journal of Eastern African Studies (2013) 7#1: 83–103. doi:10.1080/17531055.2012.755315.
  • Hansen, H. B., and M. Twaddle, eds. Developing Uganda (Ohio University Press, 1998).
  • Ibingira, G. S. The Forging of an African Nation: The Political and Constitutional Evolution of Uganda from Colonial Rule to Independence, 1894–1962 (Viking, 1980)
  • Jørgensen, Jan Jelmert, Uganda: a modern history (1981) online
  • Karugire, S. R. The History of Nkore - A History of the Kingdom of Nkore in Western Uganda to 1896. (Clarendon Press, 1971).
  • Kasozi, A. B. K. The Social Origins of Violence in Uganda (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994)
  • Martel, Gordon. "Cabinet politics and African partition: The Uganda debate reconsidered." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 13.1 (1984): 5-24.
  • Mutibwa, Phares Mukasa. Uganda since independence: a story of unfulfilled hopes (Africa World Press, 1992).
  • Ofcansky, Thomas P. Uganda: tarnished pearl of Africa (Westview press, 1999).
  • Omara-Otunnu, Amii. Politics and the Military in Uganda, 1890–1985 (Springer, 1987).
  • Reid, Richard J. A history of modern Uganda (Cambridge University Press, 2017), the standard scholarly history. online
  • Reid, Andrew. "Constructing history in Uganda." Journal of African History 57.2 (2016): 195-207. online, focus on Historical Archaeology
  • Reuss, Anna. "Forever vanguards of the revolution: the Uganda People’s Defence Forces’ liberation legacy, 30 years on." Journal of Eastern African Studies 14.2 (2020): 250-269.
  • Sejjaaka, Samuel. "A political and economic history of Uganda, 1962–2002." in International Businesses and the Challenges of Poverty in the Developing World (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2004) pp. 98-110. online
  • Ssekamwa, J.C. History and Development of Education in Uganda (Fountain Publishers, 1997).
  • Stephens, Rhiannon. A history of African motherhood: The case of Uganda, 700-1900 (Cambridge University Press, 2013).
  • Thompson, G. Governing Uganda: British Colonial Rule and Its Legacy (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2003).
  • Twaddle, Michael. "The Bakungu chiefs of Buganda under British colonial rule, 1900–1930." Journal of African History 10#2 (1969): 309-322.
  • Ward, Kevin. "A history of Christianity in Uganda." in From mission to church: A handbook of christianity in East Africa (1991): 81-112 online.
  • Willis, J. "Killing Bwana: peasant revenge and political panic in Early Colonial Ankole" Journal of African History, 35 (1994), 379-400.
  • Wrigley, C. Kingship and State: the Buganda dynasty (Cambridge UP, 1996),
  •  

Ebijulizo ssooka[kyusa | edit source]

  • Tucker, Alfred R. Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa (London: Edward Arnold, 1908). online
  1. https://www.africa.upenn.edu/NEH/uarchaeology.htm
  2. 2.0 2.1 http://countrystudies.us/uganda/ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Byrnes 1990 p. 4" defined multiple times with different content
  3. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/762515.stm
  4. https://web.archive.org/web/20160422095958/http://www.theeagora.com/the-lunatic-express-a-photo-essay-on-the-uganda-railway/https://web.archive.org/web/20160422095958/http://www.theeagora.com/the-lunatic-express-a-photo-essay-on-the-uganda-railway/
  5. https://web.archive.org/web/20150930230140/http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/ferguson-centre/working-papers/working-paper-draft-3-stewart-west.pdf
  6. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/10/4/pdfs/02-0626.pdf
  7. https://www.loc.gov/collections/country-studies/about-this-collection/
  8. https://www.theage.com.au/business/uk-indians-taking-care-of-business-20060308-ge1w3t.html
  9. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/aug/18/guardianobituaries
  10. Henry Wasswa, “Uganda's first prime minister, and two-time president, dead at 80,” Associated Press, 10 October 2005
  11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8308912.stm
  12. https://www.pinknews.co.uk/2009/10/15/ugandan-mp-proposes-that-gays-should-be-executed/
  13. 13.0 13.1 https://www.wsj.com/articles/uganda-forces-discover-suicide-vests-ieds-at-suspected-terrorist-cell-1410783132
  14. https://www.newsweek.com/ugandan-police-seize-explosives-suicide-vests-suspected-al-shabaab-cell-270345
  15. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-15/uganda-raids-suspected-terror-cell/5743746
  16. https://web.archive.org/web/20160422014408/http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/oct/04/westgate-mall-attacks-kenya-terror
  17. http://www.newvision.co.ug/news/675287-uganda-elections-polling-date-set-on-feb-18-2016.html
  18. https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/02/10/uganda-discovered-the-zika-virus-and-the-solution-for-it/
  19. http://europe.newsweek.com/ugandas-museveni-wants-create-east-african-superstate-424975?rm=eu
  20. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/ea/Dream-of-a-United-States-of-East-Africa/4552908-4783896-glbl64/index.html
  21. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/ea/East-africa-experts-draft-confederation-constitution/4552908-5422610-11fx1ge/index.html
  22. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-55675887
  23. https://www.dw.com/en/uganda-election-bobi-wine-challenges-result-in-court/a-56405583