Yuganda

Bisangiddwa ku Wikipedia
Republic of Uganda[1]
Jamhuri ya Uganda (Swahili)
Official Name in Local Languages[lower-alpha 1]
Flag of Uganda
Flag
Coat of arms of Uganda
Coat of arms
Motto: "For God and My Country"
"Kwa Mungu na nchi yangu"
Anthem: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"
Capital
and largest city
Kampala
Official languages
National languageLuganda
Spoken languagesOver 70 languages
Religion
(2014 census)[7]
Demonym(s)Ugandan[8]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
• President
Yoweri Museveni
Jessica Alupo
Robinah Nabbanja
LegislatureParliament
Independence 
• Dominion
9 October 1962
• Republic
9 October 1963
• Current constitution
8 October 1995
Area
• Total
241,038 km2 (93,065 sq mi) (79th)
• Water (%)
15.39
Population
• 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 45,853,778[9][10] (35th)
• 2014 census
Neutral increase 34,634,650[11]
• Density
157.1/km2 (406.9/sq mi) (75th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$129.48 billion[12] (88th)
• Per capita
$2,960[12] (172nd)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $46.38 billion[12] (90th)
• Per capita
Increase $1,060[12] (196th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 42.0[13]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.525[14]
low · 167th
CurrencyUgandan shilling (UGX)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+256a
ISO 3166 codeUG
Internet TLD.ug
  1. +006 from Kenya and Tanzania.

Yuganda, mu butongole Republic of Uganda ggwanga eritalina mazzi mu buvanjuba bwa Afirika. Ekitundu kino kiriko Kenya ebuvanjuba, Sudan ow'ebukiikakkono, Democratic Republic of Congo ebugwanjuba, Rwanda ebugwanjuba, ne Tanzania ebugwanjuba. Ekitundu eky'ebukiikaddyo ky'eggwanga kirimu ekitundu ekinene eky'Ennyanja Victoria, ekisangibwa ne Kenya ne Tanzania. Uganda eri mu bitundu by'Ennyanja Ennene ez'omu Afirika, esangibwa mu mugga gwa Nile, era erina embeera y'obudde ey'enjawulo naye ng'emirundi mingi ekyukakyuka. Erina abantu obukadde 49.6, nga obukadde 8.5 ku bano babeera mu kibuga ekikulu era ekisinga obunene ekya Kampala.[15]

Uganda erina erinnya okuva mu bwakabaka bwa Buganda, obuzingiramu ekitundu ekinene eky'ebukiikaddyo bw'eggwanga, nga mw'otwalidde n'ekibuga ekikulu Kampala era nga olulimi lwabwe Luganda lwogerwa nnyo mu nsi yonna. Okuva mu 1894, ekitundu kino kyafugibwa Bungereza, ekyatandikawo amateeka g'obufuzi mu bitundu byonna. Uganda yafuna obwetwaze okuva mu Bungereza nga 9 Okitobba 1962. Okuva olwo wabaddewo entalo nnyingi, nga mw'otwalidde n'obufuzi bwa bannamagye obwamala emyaka munaana nga bukulemberwa Idi Amin.[16]

Olulimi olutongole lwe Lungereza, wadde nga Ssemateeka agamba nti "olulimi olulala lwonna luyinza okukozesebwa ng'ensomesa mu masomero oba mu bitongole ebirala eby'enjigiriza oba mu mateeka, mu by'obufuzi, oba mu misango nga bwe kiragibwa mu mateeka". Luganda, olulimi olwogerwa mu bitundu bya Buganda, lwogerwa nnyo mu bitundu bya Buganda n'ebukiikaddyo bw'obuvanjuba bw'eggwanga, era n'ennimi endala nnyingi nazo zoogerwa omuli Ateso, Lango, Acholi, Runyoro, Runyankole, Rukiga, Luo, Rutooro, Samia, Jopadhola, ne Lusoga. Mu 2005, olulimi Oluswayiri, olwali lutwalibwa ng'olutalina kakwate konna n'olulimi olulala olw'omu Uganda, lwatongozebwa okuba olulimi olw'okubiri olukozesebwa mu Uganda, naye olulimi olwo terunnakkirizibwa mu palamenti.[17] In 2022 Uganda decided to make Swahili a mandatory subject in the school curriculum.[18]

Pulezidenti wa Uganda kati ye Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, eyajja ku buyinza mu Jjanwali 1986 oluvannyuma lw'olutalo lwa bannalukalala olwamala emyaka mukaaga. Oluvannyuma lw'okukyusa mu ssemateeka ekyaggyawo ekkomo ku bwapulezidenti, yasobola okwesimbawo n'alondebwa ku bwapulezidenti mu kulonda kwa 2011, 2016 ne 2021.[19]

Ebyafaayo

Uganda ey'Edda

Okuggyako ng'omusawo ayitibwa Robert William Felkin bwe yalaba mu 1879, abasawo ab'omu Kahura, mu Kitara Empire (kati ekiyitibwa Uganda) nga baggyamu omuntu ekitundu.[20]

Ekitundu ekinene ekya Uganda kyali kibeeramu abantu ab'omu Central Sudan ne Kuliak nga boogera ku balimi n'abasumba nga n'aboogera Olubantu tebannajja mu bukiikaddyo n'aboogera Olunyiriri lwa Nilo mu bukiikakkono bw'ebuvanjuba emyaka 3,000 emabega mu 1000 BC. Omwaka gwa 1500 AD we gwatuukira, baali bayingidde mu buwangwa bw'abantu aboogera Olubantu mu bukiikaddyo bw'Olusozi Elgon, omugga Nile, n'Ennyanja Kyoga.[21]

Okusinziira ku bulombolombo bw'abantu n'ebyafaayo, obwakabaka bwa Kitara bwali buzingiramu ekitundu ekikulu eky'Ennyanja Ennene, okuva mu bukiikakkono bw'ennyanja Albert ne Kyoga okutuuka mu bukiikaddyo bw'ennyanja Victoria ne Tanganyika. Bunyoro-Kitara kigambibwa nti ye yali ensibuko y'obwakabaka bwa Toro, Ankole, Buganda ne Busoga.[22]

Abamu ku bantu ba Luo baalumba ekitundu ky'e Bunyoro ne beegatta ku bantu b'omu kitundu ekyo, ne batandikawo obwakabaka bwa Babiito obwa Omukama (omufuzi) wa Bunyoro-Kitara.[23]

Abasuubuzi Abawalabu baayingira mu nsi eyo okuva ku lubalama lw'ennyanja y'Ekiyindi mu buvanjuba bwa Afirika mu myaka gya 1830 olw'obusuubuzi. Mu myaka gya 1860, Bunyoro mu Buganda ey'omu masekkati g'ebugwanjuba yalaba ng'atyoboolebwa okuva mu bukiikakkono aba Egypt. Okwawukana ku basuubuzi Abawalabu abaava ku lubalama lw'ennyanja y'omu buvanjuba bwa Afirika, abaakolanga omulimu ogwo baali bawagira okuwamba amawanga. Mu 1869, Khedive Ismail Pasha owa Misiri, ng'anoonya okuwamba ebitundu ebisangibwa ebukiikakkono bw'ensalo z'Ennyanja Victoria n'ebuvanjuba bw'Ennyanja Albert ne "ebukiikaddyo bwa Gondokoro",[24] yatuma omunoonyereza Omungereza, Samuel Baker, mu kaweefube w'amagye ku nsalo z'omu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda, n'ekigendererwa eky'okumalawo okusuubula abaddu eyo n'okuggulawo ekkubo eri eby'obusuubuzi ne "obuwangwa". Bannayoro baawakanya Baker, eyalina okulwana olutalo olw'amaanyi okusobola okuwonawo. Baker yatwala okuziyiza ng'ekikolwa eky'obukuusa, era n'avumirira Bannayoro mu kitabo (Ismailia A Narrative Of The Expedition To Central Africa For The Suppression Of Slave Trade, Organized By Ismail, Khadive Of Egypt (1874)) ekyasomebwa nnyo mu Bungereza. Oluvannyuma, Abongereza baatuuka mu Uganda nga baagala nnyo okulwanyisa obwakabaka bwa Bunyoro ne beegatta ku bwakabaka bwa Buganda. Kino kyandireetedde Bunyoro okufiirwa ekitundu ky'ettaka lye, eryaweebwa Buganda ng'empeera okuva mu Bungereza. Ebitundu bibiri ku "bitundu ebyayonoonebwa" byazzibwayo e Bunyoro oluvannyuma lw'obwetwaze.

Mu myaka gya 1860, nga Abawalabu banoonya obuyinza okuva mu bukiikakkono, abanoonyereza aba Bungereza nga banoonya ensulo y'omugga Nile baatuuka mu Uganda. Baagobererwa abaminsani b'Abongereza ab'omu Bungereza abaatuuka mu bwakabaka bwa Buganda mu 1877 era n'abaminsani Abakatuliki Abafalansa mu 1879. Embeera eno yaleeta okufa kwa Uganda Martyrs mu 1885 oluvannyuma lw'okukyusibwa kwa Muteesa I n'ekitundu ekinene eky'olukiiko lwe, n'okulonda mutabani we Mwanga.[25]

Gavumenti ya Bungereza yalagira Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC) okukola endagaano z'obusuubuzi mu kitundu kino okuva mu 1888.[26]

Okuva mu 1886, waaliwo entalo ez'eddiini mu Buganda, okusooka wakati w'Abasiraamu n'Abakristaayo ate oluvannyuma, okuva mu 1890, wakati w'Abapolotesitante b'e Ba-Ingleza n'Abakatuliki b'e Ba-Fransa.[27] Olw'obutabanguko n'ebizibu by'eby'enfuna, IBEAC yagamba nti yali tasobola "kuyimirizaawo mulimu gwabwe" mu kitundu ekyo. Eby'obusuubuzi bya Bungereza byali byagala nnyo okukuuma ekkubo ly'obusuubuzi ery'omugga Nile, ekyaleetera gavumenti ya Bungereza okuwamba Buganda n'ebitundu ebiriraanyeewo okutonda Uganda Protectorate mu 1894.[26]Template:Rp[28]

Uganda Protectorate (1894–1962)

Eggye lya Uganda Protectorate

Obukuumi bwa Uganda bwali bufuzi bwa Bungereza okuva mu 1894 okutuuka mu 1962. Mu 1893, Imperial British East Africa Company yakyusa eddembe lyayo ery'okufuga ettaka eryali lizingiramu Obwakabaka bwa Buganda eri gavumenti ya Bungereza. Ekibiina kya IBEAC kyalekera awo okufuga Uganda oluvannyuma lw'entalo z'eddiini ez'omunda ezaali mu Uganda okukireetera okufiirwa.[29]

Mu 1894, Uganda Protectorate yatandikibwawo, era ettaka eryo ne libuna n'ebitundu ebirala eby'ensi ya Buganda nga bayita mu ndagaano n'obwakabaka obulala (Toro mu 1900, Ankole mu 1901, ne Bunyoro mu 1933) mu kitundu ekisangibwa mu Uganda leero.[30]

Ekifo ky'obukuumi kyalimu emiganyulo egy'enjawulo eri Uganda okusinga ekifo kino bwe kyafuulibwa ekkoloni nga Kenya, Uganda bwe yasigala n'obuyinza obw'enjawulo obwandibadde butono wansi w'obufuzi bw'amakoloniya.

Mu myaka gya 1890, abakozi 32,000 okuva mu Bungereza mu Buyindi baaweerezebwa mu Buvanjuba bwa Afirika wansi w'endagaano z'abakozi okuzimba Uganda Railway. Bangi ku Bayindi abaawonawo baddayo ewaabwe, naye 6,724 baasalawo okusigala mu Buvanjuba bwa Afirika oluvannyuma lw'okuzimbibwa. Oluvannyuma, abamu baafuuka abasuubuzi era ne batandika okutunda enva endiirwa n'ebintu ebirala.

Okuva mu 1900 okutuuka mu 1920, obulwadde bw'endwadde y'ekizikiza obwali bucaase mu bukiikaddyo bwa Uganda, okumpi n'olubalama lw'Ennyanja Victoria, bwatta abantu abasukka mu 250,000.[31]

Ssematalo ow'okubiri yakubiriza gavumenti ya Uganda okuwandiisa abaserikale 77,143 okuweereza mu King's African Rifles. Baalabiddwa nga bakola mu lutalo lwa Western Desert, olutalo lwa Abyssinian, olutalo lwa Madagascar n'olutalo lwa Burma.

Independence (1962 to 1965)

Uganda yafuna obwetwaze okuva mu Bungereza nga 9 Okitobba 1962 ne Nnaabakyala Elizabeth II nga ye mukulembeze w'eggwanga ne Nnaabakyala wa Uganda. Mu Okitobba 1963, Uganda yafuuka repabuliki naye n'eyongera okuba ekitundu kya Commonwealth.

Okulonda okwasooka oluvannyuma lw'obwetwaze, okwaliwo mu 1962, kwawangulwa omukago wakati wa Uganda People's Congress (UPC) ne Kabaka Yekka (KY). UPC ne KY zaakola gavumenti esooka oluvannyuma lw'obwetwaze nga Milton Obote ye yali Ssaabaminisita omukulu, nga Kabaka wa Buganda (Kabaka) Edward Muteesa II ye yali akulira olukiiko.[32][33]

Buganda crisis (1962–1966)

Okuzimba ekidiba kya Owen Falls mu Jinja

Emyaka egyaddirira nga Uganda emaze okufuna obwetwaze gyateekebwawo enkolagana wakati wa gavumenti enkulu n'obwakabaka obusingako obunene mu Buganda.

Okuviira ddala mu kiseera Bungereza lwe yatandikawo obukuumi bwa Uganda, ekibuuzo ky'engeri y'okukulembera obwakabaka obusingirayo ddala obunene mu nteekateeka y'eggwanga erimu obumu bulijjo kyali kizibu. Abakulembeze b'amasaza baali balemereddwa okuteekawo enkola eyali ekozesebwa. Kino kyayongera okwonooneka olw'endowooza Buganda gye yalina ku nkolagana ye ne gavumenti enkulu. Buganda teyagezaako kufuna buwambe wabula yalabika ng'ewulira bulungi n'entegeka eyabakakasa enkizo okusinga abantu abalala abaali mu bufuzi bwa Buganda oba embeera ey'enjawulo ng'Abongereza bavuddeyo. Kino kyeyolekera mu bulabe obwaliwo wakati w'abakulembeze b'obwakabaka bwa Bungereza ne Buganda nga tebannafuna ddembe.

Mu Buganda, waaliwo enjawukana wakati w'abo abaali baagala Kabaka abeere kabaka ow'amaanyi n'abo abaali baagala okwegatta ku Uganda yonna okutonda eggwanga erya leero. Okwawukana kwavaamu okutondebwa kw'ebibiina bibiri eby'amaanyi ebyesigamiziddwa ku Buganda - Kabaka Yekka (Kabaka Yekka) KY, n'ekibiina kya Democratic Party (DP) ekyali kirina emirandira mu Kkanisa y'Abakatoliki. Obukyayi wakati w'ebibiina bino byombi bwali bwa maanyi nnyo naddala ng'okulonda okw'olubereberye okw'olukiiko oluvanyuma lw'Obukoloni kuli kumpi. Kabaka yali tayagala nnyo mukulembeze wa DP, Benedicto Kiwanuka.

Ebweru wa Buganda, munnabyabufuzi omuwombeefu okuva mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda, Milton Obote, yali akoze omukago gwa bannabyabufuzi abataali Bannayuganda okuzimba Uganda People's Congress (UPC). UPC mu mutima gwayo yali efugibwa bannabyabufuzi abaali baagala okutereeza kye baalaba ng'obutaba na bwenkanya mu bitundu ebyaleetera Buganda okuba n'enkizo ey'enjawulo. Kino kyasikiriza abantu bangi okuva ebweru wa Buganda. Kyokka, ekibiina kyasigala nga kikwatagana bulungi, naye Obote yalaga obumanyirivu obw'ekitalo mu kukkaanya ku nsonga emu nga yeesigama ku nkola ya federo.[34]

Ekizimbe eky'omu Uganda ekikuba ebitabo ku Kampala Road, Kampala, Uganda

Mu kiseera ky'obwetwaze, ekibuuzo kya Buganda kyali tekinnagonjoolwa. Uganda y'emu ku bitundu by'amakoloniya ebitono ebyafuna obwetwaze nga tebirina kibiina kyabufuzi ekirina obuyinza bungi mu palamenti. Mu kulonda okwaliwo ng'obwetwaze tebunnabaawo, UPC teyafulumya muntu yenna mu Buganda era yawangula ebifo 37 ku 61 ebyalondebwa butereevu (ebweru wa Buganda). DP yawangula ebifo 24 ebweru wa Buganda. "Ekifo eky'enjawulo" ekyaweebwa Buganda kyali kitegeeza nti ebifo bya Buganda 21 byalondebwa mu ngeri ya proportional representation ekikwatagana n'okulonda palamenti ya Buganda ′′ Lukikko. KY yawangula DP, n'efuna ebifo byonna 21.

UPC yatuuka ku ntikko ku nkomerero ya 1964 omukulembeze wa DP mu palamenti, Basil Kiiza Bataringaya, bwe yasomoka olukiiko lwa palamenti n'abakiise abalala bataano, DP n'eba n'ebifo mwenda byokka. Abakiise ba DP tebaali basanyufu nti obukyayi bwa mukulembeze waabwe, Benedicto Kiwanuka, eri Kabaka bwali bulemesa omukisa gwabwe ogw'okukolagana ne KY.[35] Okuvunda kw'abavudde mu kibiina kwafuuka amataba ng'ab'ekibiina kya KY 10 basazeewo okudda mu kibiina bwe baakiraba nti omukago n'ekibiina kya UPC tegukyasobola. Emboozi za Obote ez'ekitiibwa mu ggwanga lyonna zaali zimuluma nnyo, era UPC yali efuna obuwanguzi kumpi mu kulonda kwonna okw'ebitundu era n'eyongerako obuyinza ku bukiiko bwonna obw'ebitundu n'abateesa ebweru wa Buganda. Kabaka yayanukula mu kasirise - oboolyawo nga musanyufu olw'ekifo kye eky'omukolo n'akabonero ke yalina mu kitundu kye. Kyokka, waaliwo n'enjawukana ez'amaanyi mu lubiri lwe ezaamuzibuwalira okulwanyisa Obote. Mu kiseera Uganda we yafuukira eddembe, Buganda "yali nnyumba eyawuddemu amaanyi mu by'obufuzi n'eby'enfuna". Ab'ekibiina ekyo bwe beeyongera obungi, abantu ab'amawanga ag'enjawulo, ab'eddiini ez'enjawulo, n'ab'amawanga ag'enjawulo baatandika okukyusa endowooza yaabwe. Amaanyi g'ekibiina gaakendeera olw'obutakkaanya obwaliwo wakati w'ebibiina by'obufuzi mu bitundu byayo. Era mu 1966, UPC yali etandise okwekutula. Enkaayana zeeyongedde olw'abappya abaayita mu Palamenti okuva mu DP ne KY.

Abakiise ba UPC baatuuka e Gulu mu 1964 ku lukuŋŋaana lw'abakiise. Kuno kwe kwalaga engeri Obote gye yali afiiriddwa obuyinza ku kibiina kye. Olutalo olw'okufuna Ssaabawandiisi w'ekibiina lwali lutalo lwa maanyi wakati w'omulwanyi omuggya ow'ekika ekya'moderate' Grace Ibingira ne John Kakonge. Ibingira oluvannyuma yafuuka akabonero k'okuziyiza Obote mu UPC. Kino kintu kikulu nnyo nga twetegereza ebyaliwo oluvannyuma ebyatuusa ku buzibu wakati wa Buganda ne gavumenti ya Buganda. Eri abo abataali mu UPC (nga mw'otwalidde n'abawagizi ba KY), kino kyali kabonero akalaga nti Obote yali mu kabi. Abalabirizi abanyiikivu baakiraba nti UPC teyali kibinja kimu.

Okusaanawo kw'omukago gwa UPC-KY kwalaga obutasiima Obote n'abalala bwe baalina ku "kifo eky'enjawulo" ekya Buganda. Mu 1964, gavumenti yayanukula okusaba kw'ebitundu ebimu eby'Obwakabaka bwa Buganda nti tebyali bantu ba Kabaka. Ng'obwakabaka bwa Buganda tebunnaba kufuga Buganda, obwakabaka bwa Bunyoro obwali buliraanyeewo bwali buwangudde Buganda. Buganda yali efunye ebitundu bya Bunyoro era abakoloni ba Bungereza baali bagikakasizza mu ndagaano za Buganda. Abantu b'omu bitundu ebyo baali baagala okudda mu Bunyoro. Obote yasalawo okukkirizza olukiiko, ekyasunguwaza Kabaka n'abantu abasinga mu Buganda. Abatuuze b'amasaza baasemba okudda e Bunyoro wadde Kabaka yagezaako okukyusa akalulu. Oluvannyuma lw'okufiirwa palamenti, KY yaziyiza etteeka ly'okusindika amasaza mu Bunyoro, bwe kityo n'akomya omukago ne UPC.

Engeri y'ekika mu byabufuzi bya Uganda nayo yali yeeyoleka mu gavumenti. UPC eyali edda ekibiina ky'eggwanga yatandika okusaanawo ng'ebika bwe byavaako Ibingira okuvuganya Obote mu UPC. Enjawukana eyali wakati w'abantu b'omu bukiikakkono n'ab'omu bukiikaddyo, eyali yeeyolekera mu by'enfuna ne mu mbeera z'abantu, kati yali yeeyongedde nnyo mu bya bufuzi. Obote yeetoolodde bannabyabufuzi abasinga obungi ab'omu bukiikakkono. A. Neykon, Felix Onama, Alex Ojera nga n'abawagizi ba Ibingira oluvannyuma abaakwatibwa ne basibibwa naye, baali basinga kuva mu bukiikaddyo bwa South  George Magezi, B. Kirya, Matthias Ngobi. Ekiseera bwe kyagenda kiyitawo, ebibiina by'abantu ebyo byombi byafuna amannya ag'ebika ′′ "Bantu" (ekitundu ekisinga okuba eky'ebukiikaddyo ekya Ibingira) ne "Nilotic" (ekitundu ekisinga okuba eky'ebukiikaddyo ekya Obote). Endowooza nti gavumenti yali mu lutalo n'Ababantu yeeyongedde bwe Obote yakwata era n'asiba mu kkomera baminisita ba Bantu abaali bawagira Ibingira.[36]

Enkuyege eyitibwa Grey Crowned Crane, akabonero ka Uganda

Ebiwandiiko bino byaleeta ebintu bibiri eby'amaanyi. Ekisooka Buganda abantu b'omu Buganda Bantu era nga bwe kiri, beegasse ku kibiina kya Ibingira. Ekibinja kya Ibingira kyayongera mu maaso omukago guno nga bavunaana Obote nti ayagala okugoba Kabaka.[36] TKati tuli ku ludda lw'abawakanya Obote. Eky'okubiri, ab'ebyokwerinda, ab'obwakabaka bwa Bungereza baali basoloozezza amagye ne poliisi okuva mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda olw'okuba baali balowooza nti basobola okukola emirimu gino. Mu kiseera ky'obwetwaze, amagye n' poliisi byafugibwa ebika by'omu bukiikakkono    nga ebisinga bya Nilotic. Kati bandibadde bawulira nga beeyongedde okunywerera ku Obote, era yakozesa omukisa guno okunyweza obuyinza bwe. Mu Apuli 1966, Obote yawaayo abasirikale abappya 800 e Moroto, nga 70 ku buli kikumi baava mu Northern Region.[37]

Mu kiseera ekyo waaliwo endowooza nti gavumenti n'abakuumi b'ebyokwerinda baakulemberwa "abantu b'omu bukiikakkono" naddala Abacholi abaalina obuyinza bungi mu gavumenti ku mutindo gwa UPC. Mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda waaliwo n'enneewulira ez'enjawulo ez'okuziyiza Buganda, naddala ku bikwata ku "kifo eky'enjawulo" eky'obwakabaka ng'obwetwaze tebunnabaawo n'oluvannyuma lw'obwetwaze, n'emiganyulo gyonna egy'eby'enfuna n'embeera y'abantu eyajja n'ekifo kino. "Obote yaleeta abantu abangi ab'omu bukiikakkono mu ssaza ekkulu, nga bayita mu buweereza bwa gavumenti n'amagye, era n'atandikawo enkola y'okukuuma abantu mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda". Kyokka, ebiwandiiko bya "Bantu" ne "Nilotic" byombi biraga obutali bumu. Ng'ekyokulabirako, ekika kya Bantu kizingiramu Buganda ne Bunyoro, ab'empaka ez'amaanyi. Ekika ky'abantu b'omu Nilo omuli abantu b'omu Lugbara, Acholi, ne Langi, bonna balina obukuubagano obw'amaanyi obwayamba mu by'obufuzi bya Uganda. Newankubadde nga waliwo obuzibu buno, ebintu bino byaleetawo enjawukana mu by'obufuzi wakati w'ebitundu by'omu bukiikakkono n'ebukiikaddyo nga tebamanyi era nga kino kikyalina kinene kye kikola ku by'obufuzi bya Uganda.

Okutemagana kwa UPC kweyongera nga abalabe balaba obunafu bwa Obote. Ku mutindo gw'ebitundu UPC gye yali efugidde amakanisa agasinga obutasanyuka kwatandika okulemesa abakulembeze b'akakiiko. Ne mu disitulikiti Obote gye yakulira, baagezaako okugoba omukulembeze w'akakiiko k'essaza mu 1966. Ekirala ekyeeraliikiriza UPC kwe kuba nti okulonda okw'eggwanga okuddako kwali kujjawo mu 1967 era awatali buyambi bwa KY (abalina okuwagira DP), era n'okweyongera kw'ebibiina mu UPC, waaliwo akawuka nti UPC yandibadde ewedde obuyinza mu myezi mitono.

Obote yalumba KY n'etteeka lya palamenti eriggya ku ntandikwa ya 1966 eryaziyiza KY okugezaako okubuna ebweru wa Buganda. KY yalabise ng'addamu mu palamenti ng'ayitira mu omu ku babaka be abaasigalawo, Daudi Ochieng omulwadde ennyo. Ochieng yali wa njawulo nnyo wadde nga yali ava mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda, yali ayingidde waggulu mu KY era yafuuka mukwano gwa Kabaka eyamuwa ettaka mu Buganda. Mu kiseera Obote we yali tali mu Palamenti, Ochieng yayanika obubbi obw'amasavu n'ezaabu okuva e Congo obwali bukoleddwa omuduumizi w'amagye ga Obote, Colonel Idi Amin. Era yagambye nti Obote, Onama ne Neykon bonna baaganyulwa mu nteekateeka eno.[38] Palamenti yakkiriziganya n'okusalawo okukangavvula Amin n'okunoonyereza ku Obote. Kino kyayisa bubi gavumenti era ne kireetawo obuzibu mu ggwanga.

KY era yalaga obusobozi bwe obw'okulwanyisa Obote okuva munda mu kibiina kye mu lukuŋŋaana lwa UPC Buganda gye yafulumya Godfrey Binaisa (omuwaabi w'amateeka) ng'ali mu kibiina ekikkirizibwa okuba nga kiwagirwa KY, Ibingira n'abantu abalala abawakanya Obote mu Buganda. Okwanukula kwa Obote kwe kukwata Ibingira ne baminisita abalala mu lukiiko lwa kabineeti era n'afuna obuyinza obw'enjawulo mu February 1966. Mu Maaki 1966, Obote era yalangirira nti ofiisi za Pulezidenti ne Ssaabaminisita zaali ziweddewo - n'asindika Kabaka. Obote era yawa Amin obuyinza obusingawo n'amuwa ekifo ky'omuduumizi w'amagye okusinga oyo eyasooka (Opolot) eyalina enkolagana ne Buganda okuyita mu bufumbo (kyoka nga yeesiga nti Opolot yandibadde tayagala kukola bya bujaasi ku Kabaka singa kino kyabaawo). Obote yaggyawo ssemateeka era n'ayimiriza okulonda okwaliwo mu myezi mitono. Obote yagenze ku ttivi ne ku leediyo n'avunaana Kabaka emisango egy'enjawulo omuli okusaba amagye g'ebweru agalabika okuba nga Kabaka yaganoonyerezaako oluvannyuma lw'obulimba nti Amin yali ateekateeka okuwamba gavumenti. Obote yeeyongedde okuggyawo obuyinza bwa Kabaka ng'alangirira, wakati mu bikolwa ebirala:

  • Okuggyawo obukiiko bw'obuweereza bw'eggwanga obw'obwereere mu bitongole bya federo. Kino kyaggyawo obuyinza bwa Kabaka okulonda abakozi ba gavumenti mu Buganda.
  • Okuggyawo kkooti enkulu ey'e Buganda nga kiggyawo obuyinza bwonna Kabaka bwe yalina.
  • Okuteeka Buganda mu bufuzi obw'ebyensimbi wansi w'okufuga okw'amaanyi.
  • Okuggyawo ettaka ly'abakulembeze ba Buganda. Ettaka y'emu ku nsibuko y'obuyinza Kabaka bw'alina ku bantu be.

Empaka kati zaali zitegekeddwawo wakati wa Buganda ne gavumenti ya Buganda. Bannabyafaayo bayinza okwebuuza obanga kino kyali kisobola okwewalibwa okuyitira mu kukkaanya. Kino tekyali kyangu kubanga Obote kati yali awulira nga wa maanyi era ng'alaba Kabaka ng'omunafu. Mazima ddala, Kabaka bwe yakkiriza obukulembeze emyaka ena emabega n'awagira UPC, yagabanyizza abantu be era n'atandika okuwagira omu ku bo. Mu bitongole bya Buganda eby'obufuzi, obuzibu obuva mu ddiini n'okwegomba kw'omuntu byasobozesa ebitongole ebyo obutaba na mugaso era nga tebisobola kuddamu gavumenti. Kabaka yatwalibwanga ng'atafaayo era nga tawuliriza kubuulirira okuva mu bannabyabufuzi abato aba Buganda abaali bategeera bulungi ebyobufuzi ebipya ebyaddirira obwetwaze, obutafaananako bannakatemba abaali batayagala ebyo ebyali bigenda mu maaso kasita emiganyulo gyabwe egy'obuwangwa gyali gikyaliwo. Kabaka yali ayagala nnyo bannakyemalira.[39]

Mu Maayi 1966, Kabaka yakola enteekateeka. Yasaba obuyambi okuva ebweru, era palamenti ya Buganda n'eyagala gavumenti ya Uganda eva mu Buganda (nga mw'otwalidde n'ekibuga ekikulu, Kampala). Ng'addamu, Obote yalagira Idi Amin okulumba ekibuga kya Kabaka. Olutalo olw'okuwamba ekibuga kya Kabaka lwali lukambwe nnyo ∙ abakuumi ba Kabaka baayoleka obuvumu bungi okusinga bwe baali basuubira. Aba Bungereza baatendeka Captain Kabaka n'abasajja nga 120 ne bakuuma Idi Amin okumala essaawa 12.[40] Kigambibwa nti abantu nga 2,000 baafiira mu lutalo olwo olwakomekkerezebwa amagye bwe gaakozesa eby'okulwanyisa eby'amaanyi ne gawamba olubiri. Obutemu obwali bulindiriddwa mu byalo mu Buganda tebwaliwo era oluvannyuma lw'essaawa ntono Obote eyali omuyimbi yasisinkana bannamawulire okusanyukira obuwanguzi bwe. Kabaka yadduka ng'ayita mu bbugwe w'olubiri n'atwalibwa mu buwaŋŋanguse e London abawagizi be. Yafiira eyo nga wayise emyaka esatu.

1966–1971 (before the coup)

Mu 1966, oluvannyuma lw'okulwanagana ku buyinza wakati wa gavumenti eya Obote ne Kabaka Muteesa, Obote yayimiriza ssemateeka n'aggyawo pulezidenti n'omumyuka we. Mu 1967, ssemateeka omuggya yalangirira Uganda ng'eggwanga era n'aggyawo obwakabaka obw'edda. Obote yalangirirwa nga pulezidenti.[25]

1971 (after the coup) –1979 (end of Amin regime)

Oluvannyuma lw'okulwanagana n'amagye nga January 25, 1971, Obote yagobwa ku buyinza era General Idi Amin n'atwala obuyinza mu ggwanga. Amin yafuga Uganda ng'omufuzi wa bufuzi obw'obukambwe ng'ayambibwako amagye okumala emyaka munaana egyaddirira. Yatta abantu bangi mu ggwanga okusobola okukuuma obufuzi bwe. Kigambibwa nti Bannayuganda 500,000 bafiiridde mu bufuzi bwe. Ng'oggyeko ebikolwa bye eby'obukambwe, yaggyawo n'amaanyi bannayuganda okuva mu Uganda.[41]Mu June 1976, bannalukalala ba Palesitayini bawamba ennyonyi ya Air France ne bagikaka okugwa ku kisaawe ky'ennyonyi Entebbe. Abantu 100 ku abo 250 abaali ku mmeeri eyo baasibibwa okutuusa abasirikale ba Isiraeri lwe baabalokola oluvannyuma lw'ennaku kkumi. Obufuzi bwa Amin bwakomekkerezebwa oluvannyuma lw'olutalo lwa Uganda-Tanzania mu 1979, ng'amagye ga Tanzania nga gayambibwako Bannayuganda abaali mu buwaŋŋanguse gaayingira Uganda.

1979–present

Abalwanyi mu lutalo lwa Congo olw'okubiri. Nga 19 December, 2005, kkooti y'ensi yonna yasalawo nti Uganda, mu musango ogwatwalibwa DRC, yali eyingidde mu nsi yaayo mu bukyamu era ng'eyonoonye eddembe ly'obuntu.[42]

Yoweri Museveni abadde pulezidenti okuva amagye ge lwe gaamenya gavumenti eyaliko mu January 1986.

Ebibiina by'obufuzi mu Uganda byawerebwa mu mirimu gyabyo okuva mu mwaka ogwo, nga kino kyali kigendererwa okukendeeza ku bikolwa eby'ettemu. Mu nteekateeka ya "Movement" eyateekebwawo Museveni, ebibiina by'obufuzi byeyongera okubeerawo, naye byasobola okukola ofiisi y'ekitebe kyokka. Tebaasobola kuggulawo matabi, kukuŋŋaana, oba kulonda bantu butereevu (wadde abalonzi b'ebyokulonda baali basobola okuba ab'ebibiina by'obufuzi). Olukiiko lw'abantu olwakola ku ssemateeka lwaggyawo ekiragiro kino eky'emyaka 19 eky'obufuzi obw'ebibiina bingi mu Jjulaayi 2005.

Mu 1993, Ppaapa John Paul II yakyalira Uganda mu lugendo lwe olw'ennaku 6 okukubiriza Bannayuganda okunoonya okutabagana. Mu mikolo gy'abantu abangi, yawa ekitiibwa abakristu abaafiira okukkiriza kwabwe.

Mu makkati g'emyaka gya 1990, Museveni yatenderezebwa amawanga g'ebugwanjuba ng'omu ku bakulembeze b'omu Afirika ab'omulembe omuggya.

Kyokka, obukulembeze bwe bwonoonese olw'okulumba n'okuwamba Democratic Republic of Congo mu kiseera kya Ssematalo ow'okubiri owa Congo, ekyaleetawo abantu nga obukadde 5.4 okufa okuva mu 1998, era n'okwenyigira mu ntalo endala mu bitundu by'Ennyanja Ennene mu Afirika. Alwanye okumala emyaka mingi mu lutalo lwa bannayuganda n'eggye lya Lord's Resistance Army, eririna omusango gw'ebikolwa eby'obumenyi bw'amateeka bingi, nga mw'otwalidde n'obuddu bw'abaana, ettemu ly'Atiak, n'ettemu eddala. Entalo eziri mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda ziviiriddeko enkumi n'enkumi z'abantu okufa era n'obukadde n'obukadde okusengulwa.

Palamenti yakomya ekkomo ku biseera bya Pulezidenti mu 2005, nga kigambibwa nti Museveni yakozesa ensimbi za gavumenti okusasula doola z'Amerika 2,000 buli mubaka eyawagira ekiteeso ekyo. Okulonda kwa Pulezidenti kwaliwo mu February 2006. Museveni yalwana n'abeesimbyewo abawerako, omukulu ku bo ye Kizza Besigye.

Nga February 20, 2011, akakiiko k'ebyokulonda mu Uganda kaalangirira Pulezidenti Yoweri Kaguta Museveni ng'omulwanyi awangudde akalulu ka 2011. Kyokka, abawakanya gavumenti tebaali bamativu n'ebivudde mu kulonda kuno, nga babavumirira nga bagamba nti bya bulimba. Okusinziira ku byavudde mu kulonda, Museveni awangudde n'ebitundu 68 ku buli 100 by'abalonzi. Kino kyasinga omuyigganya we Besigye, eyali omusawo wa Museveni era n'agamba bannamawulire nti ye n'abawagizi be "beemulugunya ddala" ku byavudde mu kulonda era n'obufuzi bwa Museveni oba omuntu yenna gw'ayinza okulonda. Besigye yayongeddeko nti okulonda okwabadde kutegekeddwa kujja kuleetawo obukulembeze obutali butuukirivu era nti kiri eri Bannayuganda okunoonyereza ku kino. Ekitongole kya European Union eky'okwetegereza okulonda kyaleeta alipoota ku kulongoosa n'obunafu mu nkola y'okulonda mu Uganda: "Kaweefube w'okulonda n'olunaku lw'okulonda byakolebwa mu mirembe. Kyokka, enkola y'ebyokulonda yakosebwa obutali bwenkanya mu by'obufuzi n'eby'obugagga obwali busobola okuziyizibwa ne kireetera abantu bangi mu Uganda okufiirwa eddembe lyabwe ery'okwesalirawo".

Okuva mu Agusito 2012, ekibiina kya Anonymous ekirwanirira eddembe ly'obuntu kibadde kyekalakaasa abakungu ba Uganda era nga kikweka ku mikutu gya Gavumenti olw'ebiteeso byayo ebikontana n'obwenzi. Ab'ensi ezimu abagaba ensimbi baatiisatiisa okukomya obuyambi bw'ensimbi eri eggwanga singa ebbago erirwanyisa abalyi b'ebisiyaga likyagenda mu maaso.[43]

Ebintu ebiraga nti mutabani wa Pulezidenti, Muhoozi Kainerugaba, y'agenda okudda mu bigere bya Pulezidenti, byongedde okutabangula embeera.

Pulezidenti Yoweri Museveni akulembedde eggwanga okuva mu 1986 era yasembayo okulondebwa mu kalulu ka pulezidenti aka January 2021. Okusinziira ku byavudde mu kulonda, Museveni awangudde akalulu nga yafunye ebitundu 58 ku buli kikumi, ate Bobi Wine eyafuuka munnabyabufuzi yafuna ebitundu 35 ku buli kikumi. Ab'oludda oluvuganya beebuuza ku buwanguzi olw'okuvunaanibwa obukumpanya n'obutali butuukirivu.[44][45]Omuvuganya omulala yali John Katumba ow'emyaka 24.[46]

Ekifo Uganda gy'eri

Uganda esangibwa mu bukiikaddyo bw'obuvanjuba bwa Afirika wakati wa 1o S ne 4o N obuwanvu, era wakati wa 30o E ne 35o E obuwanvu. Ensi yaayo ya njawulo nnyo, era erimu ensozi, ennyanja, n'ensozi. Ensi eno eri ku ffuuti 900 waggulu w'ennyanja. Ensozi ziri ku nsalo za Uganda ez'ebuvanjuba n'ez'ebugwanjuba. Olusozi Ruwenzori lwe lusingayo obuwanvu mu Uganda.

Ennyanja n'emigga

Ekitundu ekisinga obunene eky'ebukiikaddyo bw'eggwanga lino kirimu n'eriba erisinga obunene mu nsi yonna eriyitibwa Victoria, eririmu ebizinga bingi. Ebibuga ebisinga obukulu biri mu bukiikaddyo, okumpi n'eriba lino, omuli ekibuga ekikulu Kampala n'ekibuga Entebbe ekiri okumpi. Ennyanja Kyoga eri mu masekkati g'eggwanga era yeetooloddwa ebitundu eby'ebinyeebwa.[47]

Wadde nga Uganda teri na nnyanja, erimu ennyanja nnyingi. Ng'oggyeko amazzi ga Victoria ne Kyoga, waliwo n'amazzi ga Albert, Lake Edward, ne Lake George. Ekitundu kino kisangibwa kumpi mu mazzi ga mugga Kiyira. Omugga Victorian Nile guva mu nnyanja ya Victoria ne gusigala mu nnyanja ya Kyoga n'oluvannyuma mu nnyanja ya Albert ku nsalo ya Congo. Oluvannyuma lugenda ebukiikakkono mu South Sudan. Ekitundu ekimu ekiri mu buvanjuba bwa Uganda kiriko omugga Suam oguyita mu mazzi. Ekitundu eky'ebukiikakkono bw'obuvanjuba bwa Uganda kifuluma ne kiyingira mu kiwonvu ekiyitibwa Lotikipi, ekisangibwa mu Kenya.[48]

Ebintu eby'enjawulo ebiramu n'okukuuma ebiramu

Uganda map of Köppen climate classification.

Uganda erina ebifo 60 ebikuumibwa, omuli ebifo bya ggwanga kkumi: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park ne Rwenzori Mountains National Park (byonna ebiri ku UNESCO World Heritage Sites), Kibale National Park, Kidepo Valley National Park, Lake Mburo National Park, Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Mount Elgon National Park, Murchison Falls National Park, Queen Elizabeth National Park, ne Semuliki National Park.

Uganda erimu ebika by'ebisolo bingi, nga mw'otwalidde n'ebisolo ebiyitibwa mountain gorillas mu Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, ebiyitibwa gorillas ne golden monkeys mu Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, n'ebisolo ebiyitibwa hippos mu Murchison Falls National Park. Enva endiirwa nazo zisangibwa mu nsi yonna.

Eggwanga lino lyali lifunye omuwendo gwa Forest Landscape Integrity Index ogwa 2019 oguli wakati wa 4.36/10, ne libeera mu kifo 128 mu nsi 172.[49]

Gavumenti ne byabufuzi

Template:Unreferenced section

Pulezidenti wa Uganda ye mukulembeze w'eggwanga era nga mukulembeze wa gavumenti. Pulezidenti alonda omumyuka wa pulezidenti ne katikkiro okumuyamba mu bufuzi.

Palamenti efumbibwa olukiiko lw'eggwanga oluliko abakiise 449. Bano kuliko abakiikirira ebifo 290 ebyokulonda, abakiikirira abakyala 116 ab'ebitundu, abakiikirira 10 ab'Ekibinja kya Uganda People's Defense Forces, abakiikirira abavubuka 5, abakiikirira abakozi 5, abakiikirira abantu abaliko obulemu 5, n'abakiikirira abakiikirira abakazi 18 ab'omu ofiisi..[50]

Foreign relations

Uganda y'emu ku mawanga agali mu East African Community (EAC), wamu ne Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, ne South Sudan. Okusinziira ku ndagaano ya East African Common Market eya 2010, eby'obusuubuzi n'okutambuza abantu mu ddembe birungi, nga mw'otwalidde n'eddembe okubeera mu ggwanga eddala ery'omubaka olw'emirimu. Kyokka, endagaano eno teyateekebwa mu nkola olw'okukkiriza omulimu n'ebizibu ebirala eby'obulabirizi, eby'amateeka, n'eby'ensimbi. Uganda y'omu ku batandikawo ekibiina kya Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), ekirimu amawanga munaana omuli gavumenti ez'omu Horn of Africa, Nile Valley, ne African Great Lakes. Ekitebe kyayo ekikulu kiri mu kibuga Djibouti. Uganda era y'omu ku b'ekibiina kya Islamic Cooperation.[51]

U.S. President George W. Bush met with President Yoweri Museveni in Entebbe, Uganda, 11 July 2003.

Military

Mu Uganda, Uganda People's Defence Force ekola ng'amagye. Omuwendo gw'abaserikale mu Uganda gukubisaamu 45,000. Eggye lya Uganda likwatibwako mu mirimu egiwerako egy'okukuuma emirembe n'okulwanyisa mu kitundu kino, ng'abanoonyereza bagamba nti amagye ga Amerika ge gokka agasangibwa mu nsi nnyingi. Uganda erina abaserikale mu bitundu by'obukiika kkono n'obuvanjuba bwa Democratic Republic of Congo ne mu Central African Republic, Somalia, ne South Sudan.[52]

Corruption

Ekitongole kya Transparency International kigambye nti ekitongole kya gavumenti mu Uganda kye kimu ku bitongole ebirimu obulyi bw'enguzi obusingirayo ddala mu nsi yonna. Mu 2016, Uganda yali ku ddaala ery'omulundi ogwa 151 ku 176 era yafuna obubonero 25 ku mutendera okuva ku 0 (olw'okulya enguzi) okutuuka ku 100 (olw'okubeera omuyonjo).

Aba World Bank's 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators batadde Uganda mu bitundu 12 eby'ensi ebisinga obubi. Okusinziira ku lipoota y'ekitongole kya Amerika ekikola ku nsonga z'eddembe ly'obuntu eya 2012 ekwata ku Uganda, "Bbanka y'Ensi Yonna gye buvuddeko awo yalaga nti obulyi bw'enguzi bucaase nnyo" era nti "buli mwaka eggwanga lifiirwa obuwumbi 768.9 (doola obukadde 286) olw'obulyi bw'enguzi".

Abakiise ba Uganda mu 2014 baafuna emirundi 60 okusinga abakozi ba gavumenti abasinga obungi, era baasaba okwongerwako ssente nnyingi. Kino kyavuddemu okwemulugunya n'obwegugungo, omuli n'okukumpanya enkoko bbiri mu palamenti mu June 2014 okulaga enguzi eri mu ba palamenti. Abayeekera, abaakwatibwa, bakozesezza ekigambo "MPigs" okulaga okwemulugunya kwabwe.

Ekikangabwa ekimu, ekyalina ebivaako eby'amaanyi mu mawanga gonna era ne kilaga nti waliwo obulyi bw'enguzi mu bitongole bya gavumenti eby'oku ntikko, kwe kubba ssente za ddoola obukadde 12.6 okuva mu ofiisi ya Katikkiro mu 2012. Ssente ezo "zaali za kukozesebwa mu kuzimba ekitundu ekisangibwa mu bukiikakkono bwa Uganda, ekyali kizikiriziddwa olutalo olwamala emyaka 20, ne mu Karamoja, ekitundu ekisinga okubaamu obwavu mu Uganda". Ensonga eno yaleetera EU, UK, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, ne Norway okuyimiriza obuyambi.

Okulya enguzi okw'amaanyi n'okutono okwabaddewo mu bakozi ba gavumenti n'enteekateeka z'obufuzi nabyo bikosezza nnyo embeera y'ebyensimbi mu Uganda. Ekimu ku bitundu omuli obutali bwenkanya obw'amaanyi y'ebigaba ebya gavumenti, omuteekebwawo ssente ezitasangikasangika okuva mu bakozi b'ebigaba.

Ekirala ekiyinza okwongera ku buzibu buno kwe kuba nti amafuta tegaliiwo. Etteeka lya Petroleum Bill, eryassibwawo palamenti mu 2012 era nga NRM eriyitibwa okuleeta obwenkanya mu kitongole ky'amafuta, lyalemeddwa okusanyusa bannabyabufuzi ab'omunda n'ab'eby'enfuna ab'omunda n'ab'ensi yonna. Ng'ekyokulabirako, Angelo Izama, omunoonyereza ku by'amasannyalaze mu Uganda ku Open Society Foundation ey'omu Amerika yagamba nti etteeka eriggya lifaanana "okuwa Museveni n'obufuzi bwe ekyuma ekikola ssente". Okusinziira ku kitongole ekiyitibwa Global Witness ekyafulumizibwa mu 2012, Uganda kati erina "amafuta mangi nnyo agasobola okuzzaawo amagoba ga gavumenti emirundi ebiri mu myaka mukaaga oba kkumi, era nga gagenda kuweza doola z'Amerika obuwumbi 2.4 buli mwaka".

Etteeka erikwata ku bitongole ebitakola gwa gavumenti (Amendment) Act, eryassibwawo mu 2006, liziyizza ebikozesebwa by'ebitongole ebitakola bya gavumenti olw'okuteekawo obuzibu mu kuyingira, emirimu, ensimbi n'okukuŋŋaana mu kitongole kino. Enkola z'okuwandiisa ezizitowa era ezitali nnongoofu (ekitegeeza, okwetaaga okubuulirira okuva mu bakozi ba gavumenti; okuwandiisa obuggya buli mwaka), okufuga emirimu mu ngeri etasaanira (ekitegeeza, okwetaagisa gavumenti okutegeeza nga tennabaako muntu yenna gw'ayogerako mu kitundu ekitwala ebitongole ebitakola bya gavumenti), n'ekigendererwa nti ssente zonna ez'ebweru zigenda okuyita mu Bbanka ya Uganda, n'ebirala, bikugira nnyo omulimu gw'ekitongole ekyo. Okugatta ku ekyo, eddembe ly'okwogera ly'ekitundu lino lyeyongedde okumenyebwa nga bakozesa okutya, era etteeka lya Public Order Management Bill (erikugira ennyo eddembe ly'okukuŋŋaana) lijja kwongera ku by'okulwanyisa bya gavumenti..[53]

Human rights

Waliwo ebitundu bingi ebyeyongera okuleeta okweraliikirira ku nsonga y'eddembe ly'obuntu mu Uganda.

Entalo eziri mu bitundu by'obukiika kkono bw'eggwanga zeeyongedde okuleeta alipoota z'ebikolwa eby'obukambwe ebyakolebwa abajeemu aba Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), abakulemberwa Joseph Kony, n'amagye ga Uganda. Omukungu wa UN yalumiriza LRA mu Febwali 2009 ku "bukambwe obw'entiisa" mu Democratic Republic of Congo.

Omuwendo gw'abantu ab'omu nsi yonna abanoonyi b'obubudamu gukubisaamu obukadde 1.4. Okubonyaabonyezebwa kukyagenda mu maaso nga nkola ebucaase mu bitongole by'ebyokwerinda. Okulumba eddembe ly'eby'obufuzi mu ggwanga lino, omuli okukwatibwa n'okukuba ababaka ba palamenti ab'oludda oluvuganya, kuleetedde amawanga gonna okunenyezebwa, ekyavuddeko gavumenti ya Bungereza okusalawo mu May 2005 okulekera awo okuwa eggwanga eryo obuyambi. Okukwatibwa kw'omukulembeze w'oludda oluvuganya Kizza Besigye n'okusibibwa kwa kkooti enkulu mu kiseera ky'okuwulira omusango gwa Besigye ng'akozesa amagye agaliko ebyokulwanyisa eby'amaanyi nga tebannalondebwa mu February 2006 kyaviirako okuvumirirwa.

Okukozesa abaana emirimu kya bulijjo mu Uganda. Abaana bangi abakola mu bulimi. Abaana abakola ku faamu z'omukka mu Uganda beetooloddwa endwadde. Abaana abaweereza awaka mu Uganda bali mu kabi k'okunyigirizibwa. Okutunda abaana kubaawo. Obuddu n'emirimu egy'obukakafu biragiddwa mu ssemateeka wa Uganda.

Olukiiko lwa Amerika olw'Abanoonyi b'obubudamu n'abanoonyi b'obubudamu lwategeezezza ku kusobya ku ddembe ly'abanoonyi b'obubudamu mu 2007, omuli okugoba abantu mu Uganda n'ebikolwa eby'obukambwe eri abanoonyi b'obubudamu.

Okubonyaabonyezebwa n'okuttibwa awatali musango kibadde kizibu kya maanyi mu Uganda mu myaka egiyise. Ng'ekyokulabirako, okusinziira ku lipoota ya U.S. State Department eya 2012, "Ekitongole kya Afirika eky'Okutereeza n'Okujjanjaba Abo Abaakosebwa Okubonyaabonyezebwa kyawandiisa emisango 170 egy'okubonyaabonyezebwa ku poliisi, 214 ku UPDF, 1 ku poliisi y'amagye, 23 ku kitongole kya Special Investigations Unit, 361 ku bantu abatali bategeerekeka ab'ebyokwerinda, ne 24 ku bakungu ba kkomera" wakati wa Jjanwali ne Ssebutemba 2012.

Mu Ssebutemba 2009, Museveni yagaana Kabaka Muwenda Mutebi, kabaka wa Baganda, olukusa okugenda mu bitundu ebimu eby'Obwakabaka bwa Buganda, naddala disitulikiti y'e Kayunga. Wabaddewo obwegugungo era abantu abasukka mu 40 battiddwa ate abalala bakyali mu makomera. Okugatta ku ekyo, abantu abalala 9 battiddwa mu April 2011 mu kwekalakaasa kwa "Walk to Work". Okusinziira ku lupapula lwa Human Rights Watch 2013 World Report ku Uganda, gavumenti eremeddwa okunoonyereza ku kuttibwa okwali kukwataganyizibwa n'ebintu bino byombi.[54]

LGBT rights

Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

Mu 2007, olupapula lw'amawulire oluyitibwa Red Pepper, lwafulumya olukalala lw'abasajja abagambibwa okuba nti basongasonga, era bangi ku bo baatulugunyizibwa.

Nga 9 Okitobba 2010, olupapula lw'amawulire olw'omu Uganda oluyitibwa Rolling Stone lwafulumya ekitundu ku lupapula olusooka ekyalina omutwe ogugamba nti "Ebifaananyi 100 eby'Abalyi b'ebisiyaga ab'oku ntikko mu Uganda" ekyaliko amannya, amadirisa, n'ebifaananyi by'abalyi b'ebisiyaga 100 okumpi n'akabonero aka zaabu akaaliko ebigambo "Basibe". Olupapula olwo era lwagamba nti abalyi b'ebisiyaga baali baagala okuyingira abaana ba Uganda. Ekiwandiiko kino kyaleetawo okutunuulirwa okw'ensi yonna n'okunenya okuva mu bitongole by'eddembe ly'obuntu, nga Amnesty International, No Peace Without Justice ne International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. Okusinziira ku bannanyini ddembe ly'abayaaye, bannayuganda bangi balumbiddwa okuva lwe kyafulumizibwa. Nga January 27, 2011, omukuumi w'eddembe ly'abasajja abeefaako bokka David Kato yattibwa.

Mu 2009, palamenti ya Uganda yatunuulira etteeka erirwanyisa obukaba eryandiyongedde obumenyi bw'amateeka bw'obukaba nga liteekawo ekibonerezo kya kufa eri abantu abalina emisango egy'emabega, oba abalina akawuka ka siriimu, era abenyigira mu bikolwa eby'okwetaba eby'ekika kye kimu. Etteeka lino era lyalimu ebiragiro ku Bannayuganda abeenyigira mu bikolwa eby'okwetaba okw'ekika kye kimu ebweru wa Uganda, nga bagamba nti bayinza okuzzibwayo e Uganda okubonerezebwa, era lyalimu ebibonerezo ku bantu kinnoomu, amakampuni, ebitongole by'amawulire, oba ebitongole ebitaba bya gavumenti ebiwagira obukuumi mu mateeka ku kwetaba oba sodomy. Etteeka lino lyateekebwawo omubaka David Bahati mu Uganda nga 14 Okitobba 2009, era lyagambibwa okuba nga lyali liwagiddwa nnyo mu palamenti ya Uganda. Ekibinja kya bannalukalala ekya Anonymous kyayingira ku mikutu gya gavumenti ya Uganda nga bawakanya etteeka lino. Okukubaganya ebirowoozo ku tteeka lino kwakendeera olw'okulumirirwa okw'ensi yonna naye oluvannyuma lyassibwa mu nkola nga 20 December 2013 era ne lyassibwa omukono Pulezidenti Yoweri Museveni nga 24 February 2014. Ekibonerezo kya kufa kyaggibwawo mu tteeka eryasembayo. Etteeka lino lyavumirirwa nnyo ekibiina ky'ensi yonna. Denmark, Netherlands, ne Sweden zaategeezezza nti zigenda kulekera awo okuwa obuyambi. Bbanka y'Ensi yonna nga 28 Febwali 2014 yagamba nti yali agenda kukyusaayo ssente za ddoola z'Amerika obukadde 90, ate Amerika n'egamba nti yali yeekenneenya enkolagana ne Uganda. Nga 1 August 2014, Kkooti ya Uganda ey'Etteeka yavumirira etteeka lino nga teririna mugaso kubanga teryayisibwa bulungi. Lipoota y'amawulire eya 13 August 2014 yagambye nti Ssaabawolereza wa Uganda avuddeyo ku nteekateeka zonna ez'okujulira, okusinziira ku kiragiro kya Pulezidenti Museveni eyali yeeraliikirivu olw'ebikolwa by'ebweru w'eggwanga ku tteeka lino era eyagamba nti etteeka lyonna eriggya teririna kussa mu nkola mpisa za bannaabwe ab'ekikula ekimu. Enkulaakulana ku lukalu lwa Afirika ebadde ya kaseera katono naye ng'egenda mu maaso nga South Africa ye nsi yokka eri mu ggwanga erikkiriza obufumbo obw'ekika kye kimu. Nga 21 March 2023, palamenti ya Uganda yakkiriza etteeka eryandifudde okweyanjula ng'omugenzi okubonerezebwa obulamu bwonna mu kkomera n'ekibonerezo kya kufa eri omuntu yenna avunaanibwa "obwenzi obw'amaanyi".[55][56]

Homosexuality

Template:Undue weight

Nga March 09, 2023 Asuman Basalirwa, omubaka wa palamenti okuva mu 2018 okuva mu ludda oluvuganya nga akiikirira Munisipaali y'e Bugiri ku kaadi y'ekibiina kya Justice Forum yateekawo etteeka [pdf bill] erigenda okuvumirira okwegatta kw'abalyi b'ebisiyaga n'okutumbula oba okukkiriza enkolagana ng'ezo. Naye era kituufu nti abantu bakola ensobi. Njagala okugamba nti obukaba kibi eri abantu ekikontana n'amateeka ga Uganda era nga bulabula obutukuvu bw'amaka, obukuumi bw'abaana baffe n'okweyongera kw'obuntu okuyitira mu kuzaala. Omukulembeze wa palamenti, Annet Anita Among, atadde etteeka lino mu kakiiko k'olukiiko olw'eby'obufuzi, nga guno gwe mutendera ogusoose mu nkola ey'okukyusa etteeka lino okufuuka etteeka. Omukulembeze w'olukiiko lwabadde agambye nti: "Twagala okusiima abawagizi baffe ab'obwenzi olw'enkulaakulana y'eby'enfuna gye baleese mu ggwanga, nga twogera ku mawanga g'ebugwanjuba n'abo abagaba. Naye tetusiima nti batta empisa. Tetwetaaga ssente zaabwe, twetaaga obuwangwa bwaffe. Mu kusaba okwali mu palamenti era nga n'abakulembeze b'eddiini bangi be baaliwo. Omwogezi yeeyamye okuteeka etteeka lino mu mateeka ku buli kigero okusobola okukuuma obuwangwa bwa Uganda n'obufuzi bwayo. [57]

Amerika yasalira etteeka lino omusango. Mu lukungaana lwa White House Press nga March 22, 2023, Karine Jean-Pierre yategeezezza. "Eddembe ly'obuntu lya muwendo nnyo. Tewali muntu n'omu asaanidde kulumbibwa, kusibibwa, oba okuttibwa olw'engeri gy'alimu oba olw'omuntu gw'ayagala". Mu nnaku ezaddirira, okwemulugunya okulala kwava mu Bungereza, Canada, Bugirimaani, n'Ekibiina kya Bulaaya.

Administrative divisions

Template:As of,Uganda eyawuddwamu ebitundu bina ne disitulikiti 136. Ebifo by'ebyalo eby'ebitundu bigabanyizibwamu ebibiina, ebibiina, n'ebyalo. Akakiiko k'ebibuga n'ebibuga kalondebwa mu bibuga by'amasaza.

Ebitundu by'obufuzi mu Uganda biweereddwa obuyambi n'obumu ekibiina kya Uganda Local Governments Association (ULGA), ekitongole ekikola ku bwereere era ekitalina kigendererwa kya kunoonya magoba era ekikola ng'olukiiko olw'okuwagira n'okuwa obulagirizi gavumenti za Uganda eziri wansi w'eggwanga.

Ng'oggyeko gavumenti, obwakabaka bwa Bantu butaano buzze bubeerawo, nga bufuna obwetwaze. Obwakabaka buno bwe Toro, Busoga, Bunyoro, Buganda, ne Rwenzururu. Okugatta ku ekyo, ebibiina ebimu bigezaako okuzzaawo Ankole ng'omu ku bwakabaka obw'obuwangwa obwategeerekeka mu butongole, kyokka nga tebinnavaamu kalungi. Obwakabaka obulala bungi n'ebika by'abaami bitegeerekese mu butongole gavumenti, omuli obumu bw'ebika by'abaami eby'e Alur, obwakabaka bwa Iteso, obwakabaka bwa Lango n'obwakabaka bwa Padhola.[58]

Laba era

Template:Portal

Ebyokulabirako

  1. Article 4(a) of the Constitution requires the state to promote public awareness through translating it into Ugandan languages and disseminating it as widely as possible[5]

Ensibuko

  1. "Uganda Constitution" (PDF). The State House of Uganda. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  2. "Constitution in Luganda" (PDF). Uganda Law Reform Commission.
  3. "Constitution in Lusoga" (PDF). Uganda Law Reform Commission.
  4. "Constitution in Lumasaba" (PDF).
  5. "Ugandan Constitution translated in different Local Languages". Uganda Law Reform Commision.
  6. Parliament of the Republic of Uganda (26 September 2005). "Constitutional Amendment Act 2005". Parliament.go.ug. Republic of Uganda. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2020. §I.3:6.(2): Swahili shall be the second official language in Uganda to be used in such circumstances as Parliament may by law prescribe.
  7. "Census 2014 Final Results" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cia
  9. "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  10. "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  11. "Republic of Uganda – Census 2014 – Final Report" (PDF). Table 2.1 page 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "World Economic Outlook database: April 2022". imf.org. Archived from the original on 2 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  13. "Gini index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  14. "Specific country data". Archived from the original on 12 August 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  15. "Uganda Population (2023) - Worldometer". www.worldometers.info (in Lungereza). Retrieved 2023-03-11.
  16. "Buganda: Uganda's 1,000-year-old kingdom". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2023-03-11.
  17. "English rules in Uganda, but local languages shouldn't be sidelined". Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  18. "Uganda is embracing Swahili in its curriculum after years of resistance". MSN. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  19. "Uganda". freedomhouse.org. 30 January 2019. Archived from the original on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  20. Dunn, Peter M. (1 May 1999). "Robert Felkin MD (1853–1926) and Caesarean delivery in Central Africa (1879)". Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition (in Lungereza). 80 (3): F250–F251. doi:10.1136/fn.80.3.F250. ISSN 1359-2998. PMC 1720922. PMID 10212095.
  21. Schoenbrun, David L. (1993). "We Are What We Eat: Ancient Agriculture between the Great Lakes". The Journal of African History. 34 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1017/S0021853700032989. JSTOR 183030. S2CID 162660041. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  22. Mwambutsya, Ndebesa (June 1990 – January 1991). "Pre-capitalist Social Formation: The Case of the Banyankole of Southwestern Uganda". Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. 6 (2, 7 no. 1): 78–95. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008.
  23. "Origins of Bunyoro-Kitara Kings". Archived from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006., bunyoro-kitara.com.
  24. Baker, Samuel White (1879). Ismailia; a narrative of the expedition to Central Africa for the suppression of the slave trade, organized by Ismail, Khedive of Egypt. Robarts - University of Toronto. London, Macmillan.
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Background Note: Uganda". Bureau of African Affairs, United States Department of State. November 2008. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Pulford, Cedric (2011). Two Kingdoms of Uganda: Snakes and Ladders in the Scramble for Africa. Daventry: Ituri Publications.
  27. Beachey, R. W. (1962). "The Arms Trade in East Africa in the Late Nineteenth Century". The Journal of African History. 3 (3): 451. doi:10.1017/s0021853700003352. S2CID 162601116.
  28. Gordon Martel, "Cabinet politics and African partition: The Uganda debate reconsidered." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 13.1 (1984): 5-24.
  29. Griffiths, Tudor (2001). "Bishop Alfred Tucker and the Establishment of a British Protectorate in Uganda 1890-94". Journal of Religion in Africa. 31 (1): 92–114. doi:10.1163/157006601X00040. ISSN 0022-4200. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  30. joz, Jaynnielaw (22 March 2015). "The Wars of Religion 1888-1892". DISCOVER UGANDA, TOUR UGANDA, VOLUNTEER UGANDA & SERVE UGANDA (in Lungereza). Archived from the original on 29 January 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  31. Fèvre, E. M.; Coleman, P. G.; Welburn, S. C.; Maudlin, I. (April 2004). "Reanalyzing the 1900–1920 Sleeping Sickness Epidemic in Uganda". Emerging Infectious Diseases. US: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 10 (4): 567–573. doi:10.3201/eid1004.020626. PMID 15200843.
  32. "History of Parliament". Archived from the original on 20 February 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2010. (Website of the Parliament of Uganda)
  33. "Buganda Kingdom: The Uganda Crisis, 1966". Buganda.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
  34. Kasozi, A. B. K. (1994). The social origins of violence in Uganda, 1964–1985. Montreal: McGill-Queens's University Press. ISBN 9780773512184.
  35. Bade, Albert (1996). Benedicto Kiwanuka : the man and his politics. Kampala: Fountain Publ. ISBN 978-9970020089.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Otunnu, Ogenga (2016). Crisis of Legitimacy and Political Violence in Uganda, 1890 to 1979. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3319331553.
  37. Kasozi (1994). The social origins of violence in Uganda, 1964–1985. p. 83.
  38. Somerville, Keith (2017). Ivory: Power and Poaching in Africa. London: Hurst. ISBN 9781849046763.
  39. Kasozi (1994). The social origins of violence in Uganda, 1964–1985. p. 64.
  40. Kasozi (1994). The social origins of violence in Uganda, 1964–1985. p. 85.
  41. "UK Indians taking care of business" Template:Webarchive, The Age (8 March 2006). Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  42. "Court orders Uganda to pay Congo damages Template:Webarchive". The Guardian. 20 December 2005
  43. Roberts, Scott (14 November 2012) Pressure on Uganda builds over anti-gay law Template:Webarchive. pinknews.co.uk
  44. "Uganda election: Bobi Wine challenges result in court | DW | 01.02.2021". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  45. "Uganda elections 2021: Museveni takes lead as Bobi Wine cries foul". BBC News. 16 January 2021. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  46. Independent, The (9 January 2021). "Presidential candidate John Katumba publishes his memoir". The Independent Uganda. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  47. Template:Britannica
  48. "Maps". Data Basin. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  49. Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  50. "About Uganda | State House Uganda". www.statehouse.go.ug. Archived from the original on 18 June 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  51. "Member States". OIC. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  52. "With Somalia, CAR, and South Sudan, Museveni is remaking the state – Charles Onyango Obbo". Monitor.co.ug. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  53. The International Center for Not-For-Profit Law. (2012). NGO Law Monitor: Uganda Template:Webarchive.
  54. Human Rights Watch. (2013). World Report 2013 (Uganda) Template:Webarchive.
  55. Nicholls, Larry Madowo,Catherine (2023-03-21). "Uganda parliament passes bill criminalizing identifying as LGBTQ, imposes death penalty for some offenses". CNN (in Lungereza). Retrieved 2023-03-22.
  56. Atuhaire, Patience (2023-03-21). "Uganda Anti-Homosexuality bill: Life in prison for saying you're gay". BBC News (in British English). Retrieved 2023-03-22.
  57. "Anti-gay law will be passed at whatever cost, says Speaker". Monitor (in Lungereza). 2023-03-08. Retrieved 2023-03-16.
  58. "A rough guide to the country's kingdoms". 11 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.

Further reading

Encyclopedias
  • Appiah, Anthony and Henry Louis Gates (ed.) (2010). Encyclopaedia of Africa. Oxford University Press.
  • Middleton, John (ed.) (2008). New encyclopaedia of Africa. Detroit: Thompson-Gale.
  • Shillington, Kevin (ed.) (2005). Encyclopedia of African history. CRC Press.
Selected books and scholarly articles
  • BakamaNume, Bakama B. (2011). A Contemporary Geography of Uganda. African Books Collective.
  • Robert Barlas (2000). Uganda (Cultures of the World). Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9780761409816. OCLC 41299243. overview written for younger readers.
  • Carney, J. J. For God and My Country: Catholic Leadership in Modern Uganda (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020).
  • Chrétien, Jean-Pierre (2003). The great lakes of Africa: two thousand years of history. New York: Zone Books.
  • Clarke, Ian, ed. Uganda - Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture (2014) excerpt Template:Webarchive
  • Datzberger, Simone, and Marielle L.J. Le Mat. "Just add women and stir?: Education, gender and peacebuilding in Uganda." International Journal of Educational Development 59 (2018): 61-69 online Template:Webarchive.
  • Griffin, Brett, Robert Barlas, and Jui Lin Yong. Uganda. (Cavendish Square Publishing, 2019).
  • Hepner, Tricia Redeker. "At the Boundaries of Life and Death: Notes on Eritrea and Northern Uganda." African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review 10.1 (2020): 127-142 online Template:Webarchive.
  • Hodd, Michael and Angela Roche Uganda handbook. (Bath: Footprint, 2011).
  • Izama, Angelo. "Uganda." Africa Yearbook Volume 16. Brill, 2020 pp. 413–422.
  • Jagielski, Wojciech and Antonia Lloyd-Jones (2012). The night wanderers: Uganda's children and the Lord's Resistance Army. New York: Seven Stories Press. Template:ISBN
  • Jørgensen, Jan Jelmert, Uganda: a modern history (1981) online
  • Langole, Stephen, and David Monk. "Background to peace and conflict in northern Uganda." in Youth, education and work in (post-) conflict areas (2019): 16+ online Template:Webarchive.
  • Otiso, Kefa M. (2006). Culture and Customs of Uganda. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Reid, Richard J. A history of modern Uganda (Cambridge University Press, 2017), the standard scholarly history. Buy from Amazon - online review Template:Webarchive
  • Sobel, Meghan, and Karen McIntyre. "The State of Press Freedom in Uganda". International Journal of Communication 14 (2020): 20+. online Template:Webarchive

External links

Template:Sister project links

Overview

Maps

Government and economy

Humanitarian issues

Trade

Tourism

Template:Uganda topicsTemplate:Districts of UgandaTemplate:NavboxesLua error: Invalid configuration file.